Melting point of Mercury is °C. Note that, these points are associated with the standard atmospheric pressure. In general, melting is a phase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. Aug 04, · According to Jefferson Labs, mercury's melting and freezing point is degrees Celsius; this is far lower than that of water. Its boiling point is degrees Celsius, Kelvin or degrees Fahrenheit, far higher than water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element what are four ways hiv is not transmitted atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Hydrogen is H. With a standard atomic weight of shat 1. Helium is a chemical element with atomic number 2 which means there are 2 protons and 2 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Helium is He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all whwt elements.
Lithium is a chemical element with atomic number 3 which means there are 3 protons what kind of volleyball is used in the olympics 3 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Lithium is Li. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal tempersture the lightest solid element.
Like temerature alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. Beryllium is a chemical element with atomic number 4 which means there are 4 protons and 4 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Beryllium is Be. Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal naturally found in mineral rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust. The commercial use of tenperature requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis.
Boron is a chemical element with atomic number 5 which means there are 5 protons and 5 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Boron jercury B. Significant concentrations of boron occur on the Earth in compounds known as the borate minerals. There are over different borate minerals, but the most common are: borax, kernite, ulexite etc. Natural boron consists primarily of merchry stable isotopes, 11B In nuclear industry boron is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to the high neutron cross-section of isotope 10B.
Carbon is a chemical element with atomic number 6 which means there are 6 protons and 6 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Carbon is C. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons merucry to form covalent how to do a 360 backflip bonds. Carbon is one what is the meaning of abandoned in hindi the few elements known since what temperature does mercury melt. Nitrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 7 which means there are 7 protons and 7 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Nitrogen is N. Liquid nitrogen made by distilling liquid air boils at Oxygen is a chemical element with atomic number 8 which means there are 8 protons and 8 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Oxygen is Mercuy. Oxygen is a colourless, odourless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 tenperature the life-supporting component of the air.
It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. Fluorine merckry a chemical element with atomic number 9 which means there are 9 protons and 9 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Fluorine is F. Fluorine is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. Neon is a chemical element with atomic number 10 which means there are 10 protons and 10 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Neon is Ne. Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air.
Sodium is a chemical element with atomic number 11 which means there are how to block websites on administrator account protons and 11 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Sodium is Na.
Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Magnesium is a chemical element with atomic number 12 which means there are 12 protons and 12 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Magnesium is Mg. Magnesium is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column group 2, or alkaline earth metals of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the twmperature electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar whah structure.
Aluminum is a chemical element with atomic number 13 which means there are 13 protons and 13 electrons in how to reach feroz shah kotla atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Aluminum is Al. Aluminium is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group. Silicon is a chemical element with atomic number 14 which means there are 14 protons and 14 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Silicon is Si. Silicon is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. Phosphorus is a chemical element temperaure atomic how to download sims 3 without cd 15 which means there are 15 protons and 15 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Phosphorus is P.
As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. Temperaturw is a chemical element with atomic number 16 which means there are mrrcury protons and 16 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Sulfur is S. Sulfur is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, xoes, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Chlorine is a chemical element with atomic number 17 which means there are 17 protons and 17 electrons in the wnat structure.
The chemical symbol for Chlorine is Cl. Hemperature is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity, temperaturre only oxygen and fluorine.
Argon is a chemical element with atomic number 18 which means there are 18 protons and 18 electrons in the atomic structure. Mercugy chemical symbol for Argon is Ar. Argon is mostly used as an inert shielding gas in welding and other high-temperature industrial processes where ordinarily unreactive substances become reactive; for example, an argon atmosphere is used in graphite electric furnaces to prevent the graphite from burning.
Potassium is a chemical element with tempersture number 19 which means there are 19 protons and 19 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Potassium is K. Potassium was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. All of the alkali metals have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with what temperature does mercury melt positive charge — a cation, which combines with anions to form salts.
Naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40K is ,ercury. Calcium is a chemical element with atomic number 20 which means there are 20 protons and 20 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Calcium is Ca. Calcium is an alkaline earth metal, it is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and mercurry properties are doees similar to its heavier homologues what temperature does mercury melt and barium.
Scandium is a chemical element with atomic number 21 which means tfmperature are 21 protons and 21 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Scandium is Sc. Scandium is a silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare-earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides. Titanium is a chemical element with atomic number 22 which means there are 22 protons and 22 electrons in the dpes structure. The chemical symbol for Titanium is Ti.
Titanium is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine. Titanium can be used in surface condensers. These condensers use tubes that are usually made of stainless steel, copper alloys, or titanium tempegature on several selection criteria such as thermal conductivity or corrosion resistance. Titanium condenser tubes are usually the best technical choice, however titanium is very expensive material.
Vanadium is a chemical element with temperathre number 23 which means there are 23 protons temperture 23 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Vanadium is V. Vanadium is a hard, how to make a perfect cake grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation merxury an oxide layer passivation stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.
Chromium is a chemical element with atomic number 24 which means there are 24 protons and 24 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Chromium is Cr. Chromium is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal4 which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point.
A major development was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel. Manganese is a chemical element with atomic number 25 which means there are 25 protons doess 25 electrons in the atomic structure.
The chemical symbol for Manganese is Mn.
Aug 20, · At room temperature, exposed elemental mercury can evaporate to become an invisible, odorless toxic vapor. If heated, it is a colorless, odorless gas. Learn about how people are most often exposed to elemental mercury and about the adverse health effects that exposures to . Could you not rephrase this as ‘how can water boil if it’s a liquid at room temperature?’ The answer is by adding (or removing) enough energy to the material for it to undergo a phase change or in other words, ‘pop the kettle on’. It doesn’t reall.
Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar mercuric sulfide. The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide. Mercury is used in thermometers , barometers , manometers , sphygmomanometers , float valves , mercury switches , mercury relays , fluorescent lamps and other devices, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol - or galinstan -filled glass thermometers and thermistor - or infrared -based electronic instruments.
Likewise, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales.
It is also used in fluorescent lighting. Electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light , which then causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce , making visible light. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury , by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury.
Mercury is a heavy, silvery-white liquid metal. Compared to other metals, it is a poor conductor of heat, but a fair conductor of electricity. The coefficient of volume expansion is Solid mercury is malleable and ductile and can be cut with a knife. A complete explanation of mercury's extreme volatility delves deep into the realm of quantum physics , but it can be summarized as follows: mercury has a unique electron configuration where electrons fill up all the available 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, and 6s subshells.
Because this configuration strongly resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves similarly to noble gases , which form weak bonds and hence melt at low temperatures. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell. An f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractive Coulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus see lanthanide contraction. The absence of a filled inner f shell is the reason for the somewhat higher melting temperature of cadmium and zinc , although both these metals still melt easily and, in addition, have unusually low boiling points.
Mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid , although oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate , nitrate , and chloride. Like silver, mercury reacts with atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes, which are used in mercury spill kits to absorb mercury spill kits also use activated carbon and powdered zinc. Mercury dissolves many metals such as gold and silver to form amalgams.
Iron is an exception, and iron flasks have traditionally been used to trade mercury. Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese , copper and zinc are also resistant in forming amalgams. Other elements that do not readily form amalgams with mercury include platinum. Mercury readily combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminium amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact.
Since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth as in iron rusting , even small amounts of mercury can seriously corrode aluminium. For this reason, mercury is not allowed aboard an aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming an amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft.
Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement. There are seven stable isotopes of mercury, with Hg being the most abundant The longest-lived radioisotopes are Hg with a half-life of years, and Hg with a half-life of Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. Hg is the modern chemical symbol for mercury.
The element was named after the Roman god Mercury , known for his speed and mobility. It is associated with the planet Mercury ; the astrological symbol for the planet is also one of the alchemical symbols for the metal. Mercury is the only metal for which the alchemical planetary name became the common name. Mercury was found in Egyptian tombs that date from BC. In China and Tibet , mercury use was thought to prolong life, heal fractures, and maintain generally good health, although it is now known that exposure to mercury vapor leads to serious adverse health effects.
In November "large quantities" of mercury were discovered in a chamber 60 feet below the year-old pyramid known as the " Temple of the Feathered Serpent ," "the third largest pyramid of Teotihuacan ," Mexico along with "jade statues, jaguar remains, a box filled with carved shells and rubber balls.
The ancient Greeks used cinnabar mercury sulfide in ointments; the ancient Egyptians and the Romans used it in cosmetics. In Lamanai , once a major city of the Maya civilization , a pool of mercury was found under a marker in a Mesoamerican ballcourt. Alchemists thought of mercury as the First Matter from which all metals were formed. They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury.
The purest of these was gold, and mercury was called for in attempts at the transmutation of base or impure metals into gold, which was the goal of many alchemists. Mercury is an extremely rare element in Earth's crust , having an average crustal abundance by mass of only 0. The richest mercury ores contain up to 2. It is found either as a native metal rare or in cinnabar , metacinnabar, sphalerite , corderoite , livingstonite and other minerals , with cinnabar HgS being the most common ore.
Beginning in , with the invention of the patio process to extract silver from ore using mercury, mercury became an essential resource in the economy of Spain and its American colonies. Mercury was used to extract silver from the lucrative mines in New Spain and Peru. The patio process and later pan amalgamation process continued to create great demand for mercury to treat silver ores until the late 19th century. Mercury is extracted by heating cinnabar in a current of air and condensing the vapor.
The equation for this extraction is. In , China was the top producer of mercury with almost two-thirds global share followed by Kyrgyzstan. Because of the high toxicity of mercury, both the mining of cinnabar and refining for mercury are hazardous and historic causes of mercury poisoning.
Thousands of prisoners were used by the Luo Xi mining company to establish new tunnels. The European Union directive calling for compact fluorescent bulbs to be made mandatory by has encouraged China to re-open cinnabar mines to obtain the mercury required for CFL bulb manufacture.
Environmental dangers have been a concern, particularly in the southern cities of Foshan and Guangzhou , and in Guizhou province in the southwest. Abandoned mercury mine processing sites often contain very hazardous waste piles of roasted cinnabar calcines.
Water run-off from such sites is a recognized source of ecological damage. Former mercury mines may be suited for constructive re-use. For example, in Santa Clara County, California purchased the historic Almaden Quicksilver Mine and created a county park on the site, after conducting extensive safety and environmental analysis of the property. Mercury exists in two oxidation states, I and II. Unlike its lighter neighbors, cadmium and zinc, mercury usually forms simple stable compounds with metal-metal bonds.
Stable derivatives include the chloride and nitrate. Treatment of Hg I compounds complexation with strong ligands such as sulfide, cyanide, etc. It is a standard in electrochemistry. It reacts with chlorine to give mercuric chloride, which resists further oxidation.
Indicative of its tendency to bond to itself, mercury forms mercury polycations , which consist of linear chains of mercury centers, capped with a positive charge.
Mercury II is the most common oxidation state and is the main one in nature as well. All four mercuric halides are known. Best known is mercury II chloride , an easily sublimating white solid. HgCl 2 forms coordination complexes that are typically tetrahedral, e. Mercury II oxide , the main oxide of mercury, arises when the metal is exposed to air for long periods at elevated temperatures. Being a soft metal , mercury forms very stable derivatives with the heavier chalcogens.
Preeminent is mercury II sulfide , HgS, which occurs in nature as the ore cinnabar and is the brilliant pigment vermillion. Like ZnS, HgS crystallizes in two forms , the reddish cubic form and the black zinc blende form. Mercury II salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia. Mercury fulminate is a detonator widely used in explosives. Organic mercury compounds are historically important but are of little industrial value in the western world.
Mercury II salts are a rare example of simple metal complexes that react directly with aromatic rings. Organomercury compounds are always divalent and usually two-coordinate and linear geometry. Unlike organocadmium and organozinc compounds, organomercury compounds do not react with water. They usually have the formula HgR 2 , which are often volatile, or HgRX, which are often solids, where R is aryl or alkyl and X is usually halide or acetate.
Methylmercury , a generic term for compounds with the formula CH 3 HgX, is a dangerous family of compounds that are often found in polluted water.
Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures. A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps , while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy. Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood.
The first edition of the Merck's Manual featured many mercuric compounds  such as:. Mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Thiomersal called Thimerosal in the United States is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines , though this use is in decline.
Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative could cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link. Another mercury compound, merbromin Mercurochrome , is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries. Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, is used in various traditional medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicine.
Review of its safety has found that cinnabar can lead to significant mercury intoxication when heated, consumed in overdose , or taken long term, and can have adverse effects at therapeutic doses, though effects from therapeutic doses are typically reversible.
Although this form of mercury appears to be less toxic than other forms, its use in traditional Chinese medicine has not yet been justified, as the therapeutic basis for the use of cinnabar is not clear. Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Thermometers and sphygmomanometers containing mercury were invented in the early 18th and late 19th centuries, respectively.
In the early 21st century, their use is declining and has been banned in some countries, states and medical institutions.