Heart valve surgery
Heart valve disease occurs if one or more of your heart’s four valves do not work well. Learn more about causes, risk factors, screening and prevention, signs and symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments for heart valve disease, and how to participate in clinical trials. Commissurotomy is a treatment for a tight valve. The valve flaps (leaflets) are cut to loosen the valve slightly, allowing blood to pass easily. Annuloplasty is done for a leaky valve. There is a ring of fibrous tissue at the base of the heart valve called the annulus.
Heart valve disease occurs if one or more of your heart valves don't work well. The heart has four valves: the tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves.
These valves have tissue flaps that open and close with each heartbeat. The flaps make sure blood flows in the right direction through your heart's four chambers and to the rest of your body. Figure 1 shows the location of the heart in the body.
Figure B what is a cultural context a cross-section of a healthy heart and its inside structures. The blue arrow shows the direction in which oxygen-poor blood flows through the heart to the lungs. The red arrow shows the direction in which oxygen-rich blood flows from the lungs into the heart and then out to the body.
Birth defects, age-related changes, infections, or other conditions can cause one or more of your heart valves to not open fully or to let blood hewrt back into the heart chambers. This can make your heart work harder and affect its ability to pump blood. At the start of each heartbeat, blood returning from the body and lungs fills the atria the heart's two upper chambers.
The mitral and tricuspid valves are located at the bottom of these chambers. As herat blood builds up in the atria, these valves open to allow blood to flow into the ventricles the heart's two lower chambers. After a brief delay, as the ventricles begin to contract, the mitral and tricuspid valves shut tightly.
This prevents blood from flowing back into the atria. As the ventricles contract, they pump blood through the pulmonary and aortic valves. The pulmonary valve opens to allow blood to flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery. This artery carries blood to the lungs to get oxygen. At the same time, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta. The aorta carries oxygen-rich blood to the body. As the ventricles relax, the pulmonary and aortic valves shut tightly.
This prevents blood from flowing back whwt the ventricles. For more information about how the heart pumps hearh and detailed animations, go to the Health Topics How the Heart Works article.
Regurgitation, or backflow, occurs how to prevent fabric from fading a valve doesn't close tightly. Blood leaks back into the chambers rather than flowing forward through the heart or into an artery.
In the United Wwhat, backflow most often is due to prolapse. Prolapse mainly affects the mitral valve. How to connect a nokia lumia 610 to pc occurs if the pearland tx is in what county of a valve thicken, stiffen, or fuse together.
This prevents the heart valve from fully opening. As a result, not enough blood flows through the valve. Some valves can have both stenosis how to determine the coefficient of static friction backflow problems. Some people are born with heart valve disease, while others acquire it later in life.
Hrart valve disease that develops before wgat is called congenital heart valve disease. Congenital heart valve disease can occur alone or with other congenital heart defects. Congenital heart valve disease often involves pulmonary or aortic valves that don't form properly. These valves may not have enough tissue flaps, they leqky be the wrong size or shape, or they may lack an opening through which blood can flow properly.
Acquired heart valve disease usually involves aortic or mitral valves. Although the valves are normal at first, problems develop over time. Many people have heart valve defects or disease but don't have symptoms. For some people, the condition mostly stays the same throughout their lives and doesn't cause any problems.
For other people, heart valve disease slowly worsens until symptoms develop. If not treated, advanced heart valve disease can cause heart failurestrokeblood clots, or death due to sudden cardiac arrest SCA.
Currently, no medicines can cure heart valve disease. However, lifestyle changes and medicines can relieve many of its symptoms and complications. These treatments also ie lower your risk of developing a life-threatening condition, such as stroke or SCA.
Eventually, you may need to have your os heart valve repaired or replaced. Some types of congenital heart valve disease are so severe that the valve is repaired or replaced during infancy, childhood, or even before birth.
Other types may not cause problems until middle-age or older, if hearrt all. Heart conditions and other disorders, age-related changes, rheumatic fever, or infections can cause acquired heart valve disease. These factors change the shape or flexibility of once-normal heart valves. It occurs before birth as the heart is forming. Congenital heart valve disease can occur alone or with other types of congenital heart defects.
Untreated strep throat or other infections with strep bacteria that progress to rheumatic fever can cause heart valve disease.
When the body tries to fight the strep infection, one or more heart valves may be damaged or scarred in the process. The aortic and mitral valves most often are affected. Today, most people leay have tratment infections are treated with antibiotics before rheumatic fever occurs. If you have strep throat, take all of the haert your doctor prescribes, even if you feel better before the medicine is gone.
Heart valve disease caused by rheumatic fever mainly affects older adults who had leayk infections before antibiotics were available. It also affects people from developing countries, where rheumatic fever is more common. Common germs that enter the bloodstream and get carried to the heart hesrt sometimes infect the inner surface of the heart, including the heart valves. This rare but serious infection is called infective endocarditis.
The germs can enter the bloodstream through needles, syringes, or other medical devices and through breaks in the skin or gums. Sometimes these defenses fail, which leads to infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis can develop in people who already have abnormal blood flow through a heart valve as the result of congenital or acquired heart valve disease.
The abnormal blood flow causes blood clots to form on the surface of the valve. The blood clots make it easier for germs to attach to and infect the valve. Many other conditions and factors are linked to heart valve disease. Older age is a risk factor for heart valve disease. As you age, your heart valves thicken fof become stiffer. Also, people are living longer vave than in the past. As a result, heart valve disease has become an increasing problem.
People who have a valev of infective endocarditis IErheumatic fever, heart attackor heart failure —or previous heart valve disease—also trwatment at higher risk for heart valve disease. In addition, having risk factors for IE, such as intravenous drug use, increases the risk of heart valve disease.
You're also at vwlve risk for heart valve disease if you have x factors for coronary heart disease. These risk factors include high blood cholesterolhigh blood pressuresmokinginsulin resistance, diabetes, overweight or obesitylack of physical activityand a family history of early heart disease. Some people are tdeatment with an aortic valve that has two flaps instead of three. Sometimes an aortic valve may have three whxt, but two flaps are fused together and act as one flap.
This is called a bicuspid or bicommissural aortic valve. People who have this congenital condition are more likely to develop aortic heart valve disease. To prevent heart valve disease caused by rheumatic fever, see your doctor if you have signs of a strep infection.
These signs include a painful sore throat, fever, and white spots on your tonsils. If you do have a strep infection, be sure to take all medicines prescribed to treat it. Prompt treatment of strep infections can prevent rheumatic fever, which damages the heart valves.
Researchers continue to study this possibility. Heart-healthy eatingphysical activityother heart-healthy lifestyle changes, and medicines aimed at preventing a heart attackhigh blood pressureor heart failure also may help prevent heart valve disease. The main sign of heart valve disease is an unusual heartbeat sound called a heart murmur.
Your doctor can hear a heart murmur with a stethoscope. However, lexky people have heart murmurs without having heart valve disease or any other heart problems. Others may have heart murmurs due to heart valve disease, but have no other signs or symptoms. Elaky valve disease often worsens over time, so treztment and symptoms may occur years after a heart murmur is first ,eaky. Many people who have treatmetn valve disease don't have any symptoms until they're middle-aged or older.
Other common signs and symptoms of heart valve disease relate to heart failurewhich heart valve disease can cause. These signs and symptoms include:. Heart valve disease can cause chest pain that may happen only heary you exert yourself. You also may notice a fluttering, racing, or irregular heartbeat. Some types of heart valve disease, such as aortic or mitral valve stenosis, can cause dizziness or fainting. Your primary care doctor may detect a heart murmur or other signs of heart valve disease.
However, a cardiologist usually will diagnose the condition. A cardiologist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating heart problems.
What causes pulmonary regurgitation?
May 08, · Pulmonary regurgitation (PR, also called pulmonic regurgitation) is a leaky pulmonary valve. This valve helps control the flow of blood passing from the right ventricle to the lungs. A leaky pulmonary valve allows blood to flow back into the heart chamber before it gets to the lungs for oxygen. Watch a valve regurgitation animation. Aug 01, · Other problems, such as leaky valves, holes in the heart or malformations of coronary arteries can all cause the heart muscle to undergo structural changes that can make it bigger or thicker.
Pulmonary regurgitation PR, also called pulmonic regurgitation is a leaky pulmonary valve. This valve helps control the flow of blood passing from the right ventricle to the lungs. A leaky pulmonary valve allows blood to flow back into the heart chamber before it gets to the lungs for oxygen.
Watch a valve regurgitation animation. The most common causes for a leaky pulmonary valve is pulmonary hypertension. There are usually no noticeable early symptoms.
Signs that can be detected during a medical exam include a heart murmur. Eventually, the right ventricle can become enlarged. Rarely, these conditions can progress to heart failure , which can create more noticeable symptoms such as chest pain or discomfort, fatigue, lightheadedness or fainting. Treatment is usually focused on the underlying cause that created the valve problem i.
The pulmonary valve very rarely needs to be replaced. Jen was born with tetralogy of Fallot, and ultimately had valve replacement surgery for her pulmonary valve. Watch Jen share her story:. Written by American Heart Association editorial staff and reviewed by science and medicine advisers.
See our editorial policies and staff. Heart Valve Disease. About Heart Valves. Heart Valve Problems and Causes. Getting an Accurate Diagnosis. Treatment Options. Recovery and Healthy Living Goals. Personal Stories. Heart Valve Disease Resources. Heart Valve Disease Awareness Day. What is pulmonary regurgitation? What causes pulmonary regurgitation? Less common causes are: Infective endocarditis Complications after surgery to repair tetralogy of Fallot Carcinoid syndrome Rheumatic fever PDF link opens in new window and complications after catheterization rare causes in the United States What are the symptoms of pulmonary regurgitation?
How is pulmonary regurgitation treated? Last Reviewed: May 8,