What is the scientific study of blood called

what is the scientific study of blood called

What Is The Study Of Blood Called?

Hematology is the study of blood and the organs of the body that produce blood cells. The name of this field in science comes from the Greek word See full answer below. Become a member and. Mar 16, the study of blood celle`s is called hematology and the study of blood element is called clinical chemistry.

An ology is a discipline of study, as indicated by having the -ology suffix. Here is a list of science ologies. Bacteriology: The study of bacteria Bioecology: The study of the interaction of life scinetific the environment Biology: The study of life Bromatology: The study of food Cardiology: The study of the heart Cariology: The study of cells; the study of dental cavities Cetology: The study of cetaceans e.

Urology: The study of the urogenital tract Vaccinology: The study of vaccines Virology: The study of viruses Volcanology vulcanology : The study of volcanoes Xenobiology: The study of nonterrestrial life Xylology: The study of wood Zooarchaeology: The study of animal remains from archaeological sites to reconstruct relationships between people, animals, and their environment Zoology: The study of animals Zoopathology: The study of animal diseases Zoopsychology: The study of mental processes in animals Zymology: The study of fermentation.

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Related words

scientific study of blood and blood forming tissues is called? hematology. medical specialist in the study of hematology is called? straw colored liquid that makes up over half the volume of blood is called? plasma. plasma is _____ of H2O and _____minerals. 90% and 10%. name three minerals found in . the scientific study of blood and blood - forming tissues heme the pigmented, iron containing nonprotein portion of the hemoglobin molecule. heme binds and carries oxygen in the RBC, releasing it to tissues that give off excess amounts CO2. the type of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of medical conditions and diseases that affect women and their reproductive organs haematology noun. the scientific study of blood. hematology noun. the American spelling of haematology. immunology noun. the study of how diseases can be prevented and how the immune system works.

They are usually associated with involuntary actions, including muscular spasms in multiple areas of the body, a general euphoric sensation and, frequently, body movements and vocalizations.

Human orgasms usually result from physical sexual stimulation of the penis in males typically accompanying ejaculation and of the clitoris in females. The health effects surrounding the human orgasm are diverse. There are many physiological responses during sexual activity, including a relaxed state created by prolactin, as well as changes in the central nervous system such as a temporary decrease in the metabolic activity of large parts of the cerebral cortex while there is no change or increased metabolic activity in the limbic i.

These effects affect cultural views of orgasm, such as the beliefs that orgasm and the frequency or consistency of it are either important or irrelevant for satisfaction in a sexual relationship, [7] and theories about the biological and evolutionary functions of orgasm.

In a clinical context, orgasm is usually defined strictly by the muscular contractions involved during sexual activity, along with the characteristic patterns of change in heart rate, blood pressure, and often respiration rate and depth. There is some debate whether certain types of sexual sensations should be accurately classified as orgasms, including female orgasms caused by G-spot stimulation alone, and the demonstration of extended or continuous orgasms lasting several minutes or even an hour.

However, the sensations in both sexes are extremely pleasurable and are often felt throughout the body, causing a mental state that is often described as transcendental, and with vasocongestion and associated pleasure comparable to that of a full-contractionary orgasm.

For example, modern findings support distinction between ejaculation and male orgasm. Orgasms can be achieved during a variety of activities, including vaginal , anal or oral sex , non-penetrative sex or masturbation.

They may also be achieved by the use of a sex toy , such as a sensual vibrator or an erotic electrostimulation. Achieving orgasm by stimulation of the nipples or other erogenous zones is rarer. In addition to physical stimulation, orgasm can be achieved from psychological arousal alone, such as during dreaming nocturnal emission for males or females [12] [14] [18] or by forced orgasm.

Orgasm by psychological stimulation alone was first reported among people who had spinal cord injury. A person may also experience an involuntary orgasm , such as in the case of rape or other sexual assault. Scientific literature focuses on the psychology of female orgasm significantly more than it does on the psychology of male orgasm, which "appears to reflect the assumption that female orgasm is psychologically more complex than male orgasm," but "the limited empirical evidence available suggests that male and female orgasm may bear more similarities than differences.

In one controlled study by Vance and Wagner , independent raters could not differentiate written descriptions of male versus female orgasm experiences". In men, the most common way of achieving orgasm is by physical sexual stimulation of the penis.

The traditional view of male orgasm is that there are two stages: emission following orgasm, almost instantly followed by a refractory period. The refractory period is the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for a man to have additional orgasms. Masters and Johnson argued that, in the first stage, "accessory organs contract and the male can feel the ejaculation coming; two to three seconds later the ejaculation occurs, which the man cannot constrain, delay, or in any way control" and that, in the second stage, "the male feels pleasurable contractions during ejaculation, reporting greater pleasure tied to a greater volume of ejaculate".

Masters and Johnson equated male orgasm and ejaculation and maintained the necessity for a refractory period between orgasms. There has been little scientific study of multiple orgasm in men. An increased infusion of the hormone oxytocin during ejaculation is believed to be chiefly responsible for the refractory period, and the amount by which oxytocin is increased may affect the length of each refractory period. During the study, six fully ejaculatory orgasms were experienced in 36 minutes, with no apparent refractory period.

In women, the most common way to achieve orgasm is by direct sexual stimulation of the clitoris meaning consistent manual , oral or other concentrated friction against the external parts of the clitoris.

One misconception, particularly in older research publications, is that the vagina is completely insensitive. Sex educator Rebecca Chalker states that only one part of the clitoris, the urethral sponge, is in contact with the penis, fingers, or a dildo in the vagina. Masters and Johnson argued that all women are potentially multiply orgasmic, but that multiply orgasmic men are rare, and stated that "the female is capable of rapid return to orgasm immediately following an orgasmic experience, if restimulated before tensions have dropped below plateau phase response levels".

Discussions of female orgasm are complicated by orgasms in women typically being divided into two categories: clitoral orgasm and vaginal or G-spot orgasm.

In , Freud stated that clitoral orgasms are purely an adolescent phenomenon and that upon reaching puberty, the proper response of mature women is a change-over to vaginal orgasms, meaning orgasms without any clitoral stimulation.

While Freud provided no evidence for this basic assumption, the consequences of this theory were considerable. Many women felt inadequate when they could not achieve orgasm via vaginal intercourse alone, involving little or no clitoral stimulation, as Freud's theory made penile-vaginal intercourse the central component to women's sexual satisfaction.

The first major national surveys of sexual behavior were the Kinsey Reports. He "concluded that satisfaction from penile penetration [is] mainly psychological or perhaps the result of referred sensation".

Masters and Johnson's research into the female sexual response cycle , as well as Shere Hite 's, generally supported Kinsey's findings about female orgasm.

Accounts that the vagina is capable of producing orgasms continue to be subject to debate because, in addition to the vagina's low concentration of nerve endings, reports of the G-spot's location are inconsistentit appears to be nonexistent in some women and may be an extension of another structure, such as the Skene's gland or the clitoris, which is a part of the Skene's gland.

Possible explanations for the G-spot were examined by Masters and Johnson, who were the first researchers to determine that the clitoral structures surround and extend along and within the labia. In addition to observing that the majority of their female subjects could only have clitoral orgasms, they found that both clitoral and vaginal orgasms had the same stages of physical response.

On this basis, they argued that clitoral stimulation is the source of both kinds of orgasms, [59] [60] reasoning that the clitoris is stimulated during penetration by friction against its hood; their notion that this provides the clitoris with sufficient sexual stimulation has been criticized by researchers such as Elisabeth Lloyd.

Australian urologist Helen O'Connell's research additionally indicates a connection between orgasms experienced vaginally and the clitoris, suggesting that clitoral tissue extends into the anterior wall of the vagina and that therefore clitoral and vaginal orgasms are of the same origin. Having used MRI technology which enabled her to note a direct relationship between the legs or roots of the clitoris and the erectile tissue of the "clitoral bulbs" and corpora, and the distal urethra and vagina, she stated that the vaginal wall is the clitoris; that lifting the skin off the vagina on the side walls reveals the bulbs of the clitoristriangular, crescental masses of erectile tissue.

In , they published the first complete 3D sonography of the stimulated clitoris, and republished it in with new research, demonstrating the ways in which erectile tissue of the clitoris engorges and surrounds the vagina, arguing that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina when the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration.

They assert that since the front wall of the vagina is inextricably linked with the internal parts of the clitoris, stimulating the vagina without activating the clitoris may be next to impossible. Supporting a distinct G-spot is a study by Rutgers University , published , which was the first to map the female genitals onto the sensory portion of the brain; [66] brain scans showed that the brain registered distinct feelings between stimulating the clitoris, the cervix and the vaginal wall where the G-spot is reported to be when several women stimulated themselves in a functional magnetic resonance fMRI machine.

It's a region, it's a convergence of many different structures. Regular difficulty reaching orgasm after ample sexual stimulation, known as anorgasmia , is significantly more common in women than in men see below.

Scholars state "many couples are locked into the idea that orgasms should be achieved only through intercourse [vaginal sex]" and that "[e]ven the word foreplay suggests that any other form of sexual stimulation is merely preparation for the 'main event.

Because women reach orgasm through intercourse less consistently than men, they are more likely than men to have faked an orgasm ". In the first large-scale empirical study worldwide to link specific practices with orgasm, reported in the Journal of Sex Research in , demographic and sexual history variables were comparatively weakly associated with orgasm. Data was analyzed from the Australian Study of Health and Relationships, a national telephone survey of sexual behavior and attitudes and sexual health knowledge carried out in , with a representative sample of 19, Australians aged 16 to Generally, the more practices engaged in, the higher a woman's chance of having an orgasm.

Women were more likely to reach orgasm in encounters including cunnilingus". Other studies suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during vaginal intercourse than other women. Kinsey, in his book Sexual Behavior in the Human Female , stated that exercise could bring about sexual pleasure, including orgasm. In both sexes, pleasure can be derived from the nerve endings around the anus and the anus itself, such as during anal sex.

It is possible for men to achieve orgasms through prostate stimulation alone. It is also typical for a man to not reach orgasm as a receptive partner solely from anal sex. For women, penile-anal penetration may also indirectly stimulate the clitoris by the shared sensory nerves, especially the pudendal nerve , which gives off the inferior anal nerves and divides into the perineal nerve and the dorsal nerve of the clitoris.

The aforementioned orgasms are sometimes referred to as anal orgasms, [87] [88] but sexologists and sex educators generally believe that orgasms derived from anal penetration are the result of the relationship between the nerves of the anus, rectum, clitoris or G-spot area in women, and the anus's proximity to the prostate and relationship between the anal and rectal nerves in men, rather than orgasms originating from the anus itself.

For women, stimulation of the breast area during sexual intercourse or foreplay , or solely having the breasts fondled, can create mild to intense orgasms, sometimes referred to as a breast orgasm or nipple orgasm. An orgasm is believed to occur in part because of the hormone oxytocin , which is produced in the body during sexual excitement and arousal and labor. It has also been shown that oxytocin is produced when a man or woman's nipples are stimulated and become erect. Masters and Johnson were some of the first researchers to study the sexual response cycle in the early s, based on the observation of women and men.

They described a cycle that begins with excitement as blood rushes into the genitals, then reaches a plateau during which they are fully aroused, which leads to orgasm, and finally resolution, in which the blood leaves the genitals.

In the s, Helen Singer Kaplan added the category of desire to the cycle, which she argued precedes sexual excitation. She stated that emotions of anxiety, defensiveness and the failure of communication can interfere with desire and orgasm. Rather than orgasm being the peak of the sexual experience, she suggested that it is just one point in the circle and that people could feel sexually satisfied at any stage, reducing the focus on climax as an end-goal of all sexual activity.

As a man nears orgasm during stimulation of the penis, he feels an intense and highly pleasurable pulsating sensation of neuromuscular euphoria. These pulses are a series of throbbing sensations of the bulbospongiosus muscles that begin in the anal sphincter and travel to the tip of the penis. They eventually increase in speed and intensity as the orgasm approaches, until a final "plateau" the orgasmic pleasure sustained for several seconds. During orgasm, a human male experiences rapid, rhythmic contractions of the anal sphincter , the prostate, and the muscles of the penis.

The sperm are transmitted up the vas deferens from the testicles , into the prostate gland as well as through the seminal vesicles to produce what is known as semen. Except for in cases of a dry orgasm, contraction of the sphincter and prostate force stored semen to be expelled through the penis's urethral opening. The process takes from three to ten seconds, and produces a pleasurable feeling. It is believed that the exact feeling of "orgasm" varies from one man to another.

This does not normally affect the intensity of pleasure, but merely shortens the duration. After ejaculation, a refractory period usually occurs, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. This can last anywhere from less than a minute to several hours or days, depending on age and other individual factors.

A woman's orgasm may last slightly longer or much longer than a man's. In some instances, the series of regular contractions is followed by a few additional contractions or shudders at irregular intervals.

Women's orgasms are preceded by erection of the clitoris and moistening of the opening of the vagina. Some women exhibit a sex flush , a reddening of the skin over much of the body due to increased blood flow to the skin. As a woman nears orgasm, the clitoral glans retracts under the clitoral hood , and the labia minora inner lips become darker. As orgasm becomes imminent, the outer third of the vagina tightens and narrows, while overall the vagina lengthens and dilates and also becomes congested from engorged soft tissue.

Elsewhere in the body, myofibroblasts of the nipple- areolar complex contract, causing erection of the nipples and contraction of the areolar diameter, reaching their maximum at the start of orgasm. Most women find these contractions very pleasurable. Researchers from the University Medical Center of Groningen in the Netherlands correlated the sensation of orgasm with muscular contractions occurring at a frequency of 813 Hz centered in the pelvis and measured in the anus.

They argue that the presence of this particular frequency of contractions can distinguish between voluntary contraction of these muscles and spontaneous involuntary contractions, and appears to more accurately correlate with orgasm as opposed to other metrics like heart rate that only measure excitation. They assert that they have identified "[t]he first objective and quantitative measure that has a strong correspondence with the subjective experience that orgasm ultimately is" and state that the measure of contractions that occur at a frequency of 813 Hz is specific to orgasm.

They found that using this metric they could distinguish from rest, voluntary muscular contractions, and even unsuccessful orgasm attempts. Since ancient times in Western Europe, women could be medically diagnosed with a disorder called female hysteria , the symptoms of which included faintness, nervousness, insomnia, fluid retention, heaviness in abdomen, muscle spasm, shortness of breath, irritability, loss of appetite for food or sex, and "a tendency to cause trouble".

Paroxysm was regarded as a medical treatment, and not a sexual release. There have been very few studies correlating orgasm and brain activity in real time. One study examined 12 healthy women using a positron emission tomography PET scanner while they were being stimulated by their partners. Brain changes were observed and compared between states of rest, sexual stimulation, faked orgasm, and actual orgasm.

Differences were reported in the brains of men and women during stimulation. However, changes in brain activity were observed in both sexes in which the brain regions associated with behavioral control, fear and anxiety shut down.

Regarding these changes, Gert Holstege said in an interview with The Times , "What this means is that deactivation, letting go of all fear and anxiety, might be the most important thing, even necessary, to have an orgasm.

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