Geography as a Science of Relationship Between Man and Environment
There is a close intimacy between Political Science and Geography. УGeoФ means earth and УgraphyФ means description and the description of the earth is known as geography. It is the science of Уthe earthТs surface, form, physical features, natural and political divisions, climate, production, population.Ф. Relationship between Geography and Political Science. Article shared by. It is maintained by certain writers that geographical and physical conditions greatly influence the character, the national life of the people, and their political institutions. Aristotle was of the opinion that without geography neither political nor strategically wisdom can go far.
The Greek, Roman, Indian, Chinese and Arab geographers attempted to establish a relationship between man and natural environment. Kant, in the concluding part geogrqphy the 18th century, advocated the impact of environment on the lifestyle and physical constitution and lifestyle the equatorial, hot deserts, Mediterranean, coastal and mountainous regions.
According to Kant, the inhabitants of torrid zone are exceptionally lazy and timid, while the people of the Mediterranean region living in the mild temperature conditions are industrious, hard working and progressive. The environmental causation continued throughout the 19th century. Humboldt asserted that the geotraphy of life of the inhabitants of the mountainous countries of the Andes mountains differ from that of the people of Amazon basin, coastal plains and islands like Cuba and West Indies.
Ritter attempted to establish the cause variations in the physical constitution of body, physique and health of people living in the different physical environmental conditions. The idea of rwlationship geography in terms of man and environment relationship developed on scientific lines in the later part of the 19th century after the publication of Origin of Species by Charles Darwin.
This seminal work gave a new direction to the discipline of geography. Feography theory of evolution held that all living species have evolved from pre-existing forms.
His geological observations and theories had one thing politicql common: the idea that things in nature change with geogtaphy. He also believed that the face of the earth also changes with the change in environment over the period of time.
In this book, Origin of Species, Darwin presented his idea that species evolve from more primitive species through the process of natural selection.
In his account of natural selection occurs, known as Darwinism, he pointed out that not all individuals of a species are exactly the same but have variations and some of these variations make their bearers better adapted to particular ecological conditions. He theorized that well-adapted individuals of a species have more chance how to delete itunes downloads on ipad surviving and producing young than do the less adapted, and that over the passage of time the latter are slowly weeded out.
Through his theory Darwin showed how the multitude of living things in our world could have come into being without any recourse to a divine master plan, in a plain, causal, naturalistic way. Darwin argued that a struggle for existence must take place; it followed that ecience who survived were better adapted to their environment than competitors.
This means that relatively superior adaptations increase while relatively inferior rrlationship are steadily eliminated. On an average, offspring that vary most strongly in direction favoured by the environment will survive and propagate.
It assumed that variations in animals were random. In this way, the older teleological conception the religious belief that God has a plan and every phenomena of the earth have been created to perform certain functions for man of nature what are the different types of shower valves profoundly challenged.
In his subsequent book, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin provided evidence of human evolution from one primitive politjcal and discussed the role of sexual selection in evolution.
The concept of defining geography in terms of relationship became quite popular in Germany. The work of Darwin influenced Friedrich Ratzel, who published Anthropogeography in two volumes in and respectively.
In the first volume, he organized the material to show the influence of physical environment on history, culture and the mode of life of the people, while the second volume deals with the geographical distribution of men in the world.
Ratzel, by applying the organic theory to political geography, developed the concept of lehensraum literally living space or the geographical area within which an organism develops. Conflict between nations was thus seen as a contest for territory within which to expand, with the fittest surviving.
The concept was appropriated by the German School of Geopolitik in scienec s and s and used to justify the Nazi programme of territorial expansion. The influence of physical environment on the history of people of the region in any part of the world can be found in her writings.
The main cause of variations in the history, culture and lifestyle of the people of plains and mountains can be traced in the physical environment. The concept of pays micro-regiondeveloped by Lablache, was also based on the concept of relationship.
He also coined the concept of genres de vie lifestyle. Lablache was convinced relationshipp genres de vie politicall themselves reflective of nature physical environmenteven as they transformed it. He always conceived human geography as natural, not a social science. Ultimately, geography as the science of relationship appeared in the form of environmental determinism. Geographh determinism is the doctrine according to which the human activities are controlled by the physical environment.
In the opinion of environmental determinists, human geography is the study of influence of physical environment on man. Hettner also supported the concept of geography as the study of relationship. Thus, relatiomship the physical factors and the human factors cultural environment are to be studied in their relations to each other. Geography is a natural science in the same way as plant ecology is a biological science.
Sauer, in his book Agricultural Origins and Dispersalsfocused upon the patterns of human culture in relation to the natural environment. He also tried to explain how human interactions with physical environment have resulted into various cultural patterns in the different parts of the anc.
While examining the lifestyle and history of the people in the different regions of the world, it may be said that there is a close relationship between the environment and the mode of life of the people.
Undoubtedly, terrain, topography, temperature, rainfall, natural vegetation and soils sdience a direct bearing on the culture, economy and society of an people, yet the role of man as the transforming agent of his what are the properties of source and seal rock surroundings cannot be ignored. In fact, geoography of man reveal many facts for which environmental forces alone can give no satisfactory explanation.
For example, similar locations may not lead to similar mode of life. The Eskimos of Tundra region differ markedly in their economic activities and cultural practices from the Tungus, Yakuts and Reelationship, etc. The Khasis and Nepalis, living in Meghalaya India in the same physical environmental conditions, have the different cultural ethos.
Likewise, the Hanjis water dwellers of Dal Lake and Jhelum river in Srinagar have different attitude and mode of life from the inhabitants of Srinagar city. Geography, as the discipline of relationship, though was quite prominent approach, it lost its sciencce after relatioship Second World War. The advocates of spatial science, locational analysis, behaviouralists, radicalists and humanists criticized this approach and declared it just deterministic and geotraphy.
You must be logged in to post a bftween. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of ArtsЧPolitical Science Major
Political science is the study of governments and how they function. Part of most geography curriculums incorporate the study of various types of governments utilised around the world. Studying politics and geography together then becomes known as geo-politics or geo-political history. K views. The old territorial bases of both geography and political science have to be reexamined and to some extent expanded or redefined. Cyberspace as a New Locational Dimension Both political science and geography now are faced with a new spatial challenge, introduced by one of the principal clauses of globalization, namely cybernetics. zi255.com Jonathan Leib, Chair. The Department of Political Science and Geography offers undergraduate degrees in political science and geography. In political science, the department offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. The political science program is designed to give students an essential core of basic knowledge and analytical skills, while providing .
The Department of Political Science and Geography offers undergraduate degrees in political science and geography. In political science, the department offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. The political science program is designed to give students an essential core of basic knowledge and analytical skills, while providing an opportunity to specialize in one of two emphasis areas: American politics and public law, or international relations and comparative politics.
In geography the department offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. Undergraduate and graduate certificates in geographic information science and in spatial analysis of coastal environments are also offered. In addition to developing subject-area expertise, political science and geography courses are designed to build analytic and communication skills.
Writing skills are emphasized throughout the curriculum. Undergraduates in most level courses in political science and geography are required to make oral presentations in class. Instructors also strengthen students' verbal competency skills through in-class discussions. Students gain technical skills in lower and upper-level methods classes where computers are employed for data analysis and social science research. Undergraduate students may earn honors in the major in political science or geography by fulfilling all the requirements for the specific degree B.
The requirements for honors do not increase the credit hours necessary for the major. BS students' competence must be at the level. BA students must have competence through the level.
Competence is not met by the associate degree for BA students. Satisfied in the major with POLS ECON S is a departmental requirement and is not met by the associate degree. Both the B. One elective must be writing intensive. All majors must complete and submit to the department a capstone paper in the junior or senior year. Elective courses may be taken for the remainder of the minimum credits required for the degree.
Graduation requirements include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2. This is a suggested curriculum plan to complete this degree program in four years. Please consult information in this Catalog, Degree Works, and your academic advisor for more specific information on course requirements for this degree. The departments of Political Science and Geography and Philosophy and Religious Studies have established an arrangement that makes it possible to complete a double major in as few as 55 hours, little more than the hours needed for a major in one and minor in the other.
Political Science majors double-majoring in Philosophy on the Political-Legal Studies track will be allowed to count any two of the following Philosophy courses as Political Science electives:. Philosophy "topics" courses and PHIL E may also be counted as Political Science electives when the topic covered is appropriate; prior approval is required from the chief departmental advisor of Political Science and Geography.
Philosophy will also count certain Political Science courses towards its major for double majors; see the Philosophy section of this Catalog for details. Satisfied in the major with GEOG BS only. At least nine credit hours must be taken at the level. Those wishing to pursue a physical geography concentration may substitute the following ocean, earth and atmospheric science courses for up to 12 hours of Geography credit:.
Three hours of internship count toward the 36 hours of geography courses. All majors must complete a capstone paper in the junior or senior year. Electives: Elective courses may be taken for the remainder of the minimum credits required for the degree. Requirements for graduation include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.
The linked B. Students must earn a minimum of credit hours discrete credit hours for the undergraduate degree and 30 discrete credit hours for the graduate degree. Please refer to the Humanities section of this Catalog for additional information on the linked program. One general minor and a minor with a specialization in public law are offered in political science.
For completion of a minor, a student must have a minimum overall cumulative grade point average of 2. One general minor and a minor with a specialization in environment and resources are offered in geography. Students interested in advanced placement credit should confer with the department chair.
The certificate in geographic information science GISci provides a program for students and professionals pursuing careers in geographic information systems GIS and related spatial technologies remote sensing, global positioning systems, cartography, and spatial data handling and analysis. Awarded upon completion of the requirements, the certificate is an affidavit of academic proficiency and is administered by the Department of Political Science and Geography.
Students must take courses in the areas listed below and complete them with a cumulative GPA of 3. Students must complete a minimum of six hours in upper-level courses required for the certificate through courses offered by Old Dominion University. The certificate is available to undergraduate students and non-degree seeking professionals who meet the requirements.
Students with comparable professional experience may be able to satisfy competencies in selected courses through examination. The certificate in spatial analysis of coastal environments provides an interdisciplinary program for students wishing to pursue careers in coastal management or research, remote sensing, or geographic information systems GIS applications. Rendered upon completion of the requirements, the certificate is an academic affidavit comprised of courses in geography and ocean, earth and atmospheric sciences and is administered by the two departments.
The certificate is available to postgraduate professionals who meet the requirements. Students with comparable professional experience may be able to show competence in selected courses through examination. The undergraduate certificate in hazards and emergency management provides a program for students and professionals pursuing careers in emergency management and related hazards analysis.
The certificate is an affidavit of academic proficiency and is administered by the Department of Political Science and Geography. The certificate is available to undergraduates and non-degree seeking professionals who meet the requirements. Students with comparable professional experience may be able to satisfy competencies in selected courses through prior learning assessment. For completion of the certificate, students must have a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.
The undergraduate certificate in environmental studies provides a program for students and professionals pursuing careers in environmental fields environmental impact assessment, natural resource management, sustainability, environmental policy, or conservation. The undergraduate certificate in urban studies, policy and planning is a program for students and professionals pursuing careers in urban and adaptation planning, city or county management, and community resilience building. GEOG S.
Cultural Geography. This course provides a basic topical introduction to human and cultural geography. It focuses on the diversity of human societies, their distribution, characteristics, and cultural impact on the landscape. Topics include the geography of population, migration, language, religion, economic development, urbanization, resources, and the political landscape. Environmental Geography. A geographical study of the diverse characteristics of the Earth's physical landscape, spatial distribution of environmental characteristics, the impacts of these on human populations and human populations' impact on the natural environment.
Topics include climate and climate change, mass movements and natural hazards, biogeography and environmental problems such as desertification and deforestation, and the use and abuse of water resources. GEOG T. Digital Earth: Geospatial Technology and Society. This course provides an overview and exploration of: 1 the digital representation of the Earth and 2 geospatial science and technology. The course investigates geospatial technological innovations affecting the environment, resources, and society, including satellite global positioning systems, geographic information systems, and earth observations.
Students develop hands-on skills as well as critical-thinking skills concerning the role of increasingly ubiquitous geospatial technology and their influences on social, economic, and human-environment interactions. Honors: Cultural Geography.
Open only to students in the Honors College. GEOG World Regional Geography. A study of the physical and cultural characteristics of the major geographical regions of the world. The course focuses upon significant problems within each of the world's major regions and examines the relevance of the geographical background to these problems. Topics in Geography.
Maps and Geographic Information. An investigation of different representations of the Earth: physical and cognitive maps, atlases, spatial databases, aerial photographs, and remote sensing imagery, with an emphasis on the use of geographic tools for communicating and analyzing information. World Resources. A geographical analysis of the distribution and accessibility of the world's resources including population, agricultural land, biodiversity, water, renewable and nonrenewable materials, and energy sources.
Hazards: Natural and Technological. An exploration of human perceptions of and responses to extreme geophysical and technological threats, including nuclear bombs and accidents, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
Prerequisites: junior standing and six credits in the social sciences or permission of the instructor. Research Design. Covers the design and implementation of quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry in social sciences. Geography of the City. An analysis of the structure, growth, and development of cities. Topics include the use of urban land, location of public services, structure of the urban economy, social problems of urban populations, and decay and revitalization.
Prerequisites: Completion of General Education human behavior requirement. Political Geography. A study of the relationship between geographical and political factors; the nation state and its subdivisions; interaction among states; and the political geography of everyday life. World Economic Geography. An analysis of differences in spatial patterns on the economic landscape at national and international levels, and the processes which create such differences.
Introduces basic concepts, theories, and models in economic geography at the global scale. Ethnic Minorities.