Christina was born in the royal castle Tre Kronor on 18 December [O.S. 8 December] Her parents were the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus and his German wife, Maria zi255.com had already had three children: two daughters (a stillborn princess in , and then the first Princess Christina, who was born in and died the following year) and a stilborn son in May Mainz (/ m a? n t s /; German: [ma??nt?s] (); Latin: Mogontiacum) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.. Most of the city is upstream of the Rhine before it flows west. The north of the city faces Wiesbaden, in Hesse, and the east the confluence of the Main.. Mainz is an independent city with a population of , (as of ) and forms part of the Frankfurt.
Covid has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help! Learning Center What is a mineral? Mineral Name:. Locality Name:. Keyword s :. Illite This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page. Photos of Illite Illite Gallery Search Photos of Illite. Illite Auburn, Nemaha Co. Illiteetc. Hide all sections Show all sections. This section is currently hidden. Click the show button to view. Formula: K 0. Illite shows a range of compositions see below. Hydronium may occur in the interlayer region and contribute to charge balance and tetrahedral Al-Si ratios may vary.
Colour: Gray-white to silvery-white, greenish-gray, sometimes stained other hues. Name: Named in by Ralph E. Grim, R. Bray, and W. Bradley for one of the co-type localities, in Illinois, USA. In the time period the mineral was named, the probable supposition was that the leaching of interlayer K was a consistent feature throughout the mineral's structure and that the alteration was systematic. Grim et al. The literature on "illite" is among the largest in all of mineralogy as it is a widespread component of sediments.
Stixrude and Peacor further considered the model of illite relating to its transformation into montmorillonite via two mixed-layer models of crystallization and concluded that charge defect layers influenced the composition of adjacent layers, but which, thermodynamically, should not result in the formation of K-rectorite.
A variety of Muscovite Mica Group. Illite is dioctahedral, although some references are known which incorrectly refer to "illite" as a similar alteration sequence of trioctahedral micas, although some concomitant Mg substitution in octahedral sites has been suggested. Illite is typically found as extremely fine-grained masses of grayish-white to silvery-gray, sometimes greenish-gray, material. Paragonitethe Na analog of muscovite, alters in a more or less similar manner as muscovite, and leads to a Na-deficient variety called brammallite.
Illite is usually an alteration product of muscovite and can be regarded as the mechanism where muscovite may be eventually altered to montmorillonite. During the alteration from muscovite to illite, the structure of illite may become "turbostratified" and the resulting layers of K-filled how to make beaded dorset buttons K-deficient are randomly mixed, in addition to varying Al-Si substitutions in tetrahedral layers for charge balance.
The "Nomenclature of the micas" paper Rieder et al. This name has been used relatively vaguely, and the Subcommittee found it suitable as a series name for a relatively large volume in compositional space, as a counterpart to glauconite. The composition range of illite is described more appropriate by the following formula: K 0.
Dana 7th how to wash a hockey jersey. AlHKOSi - search for minerals with similar chemistry. Recorded ages:. Phanerozoic : Ma to 1. Geological Setting:. Found in a wide variety of environments, the materials of this series form by either powver or hydrothermal alteration of muscovite-phengite; but some is authigenic or could be derived from alteration of K-feldspars ;owder recrystallization of smectites. Common in sediments, clays, marls, shales and some slates.
Interstratified illite-smectite converts to illite at depths and mixed-layer ratios have been used dhat interpret the depth of burial of sediments.
First Recorded Locality:. The Maquoketa shale, Gilead, Calhoun Co. Quartz Limonite. Glimmerton Killianite Hydromica prwgue part. Dutch: Illiet. Al-illite-hydromica Variety of Illite very low in K and high in water. Ammersooite A variety of Illite capable of fixing Potassium, from Dutch fields. Avalite A chromian variety of Illite. Originally described from Mt Avala, Belgrade, Serbia. Illite Jade A dense variety of illite with reddish praguw caused by microscopic inclusions of hematitewhich is used for carving and as an ornamental stone.
In addition to hematite, the material usually also contains small quantities of impurities such as quartzLeverrierite A kaolinite-group clay. Nickel and Chromium-rich Illite The illite and a Ni-dominant trioctahedral mica are said to contain up to Vanadian Illite A V-enriched "illite".
Member of:. Celadonite Family A subgroup of the dioctahedral mica group. Phengite KAl 1. Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:. In Poweer light:. Health Risks:. No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care. An essential component of rock names highlighted in redan accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.
Reference List:. Gaudette, H. Eslinger, E. Clays and Clay Minerals: Nadeau, P. Drits, V. Rieder, M. The Canadian Mineralogist: Clay Minerals: Gaines, R. Cuadros, J. European Journal of Mineralogy: Stixrude, L.
Nature: Guggenheim, S. Pironon, J. Sainz-Diaz, C. American Mineralogist: Theoretical exchange potential determination and Monte Carlo simulation. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: Dainyak, L. Buy from David K Joyce minerals. This map shows a selection of localities how to draw 50 cars have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
TL - Type Locality tagalg a valid mineral species. Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this how to do a zombie makeup face. All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable. Mirkhani, Pwder. Public Relations by Blythe weigh. A dense variety of illite with reddish banding caused by microscopic inclusions of hematitewhich is used for carving and as an ornamental stone.
A ib clay.
Click to see our best Video content. Take A Sneak Peak At The Movies Coming Out This Week (8/12) Everything we know about ‘Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings’. Named in by Ralph E. Grim, R. H. Bray, and W. F. Bradley for one of the co-type localities, in Illinois, USA. In the time period the mineral was named, the probable supposition was that the leaching of interlayer K was a consistent feature throughout the mineral's structure and that the . ??? ????; /03/ ???????? ??????????????????????? /03/ ??3?????????????????????????????????????? .
Most of the city is upstream of the Rhine before it flows west. The north of the city faces Wiesbaden , in Hesse , and the east the confluence of the Main. Mainz is an independent city with a population of , as of and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the Romans in the 1st century BC as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the empire and provincial capital of Germania Superior.
Mainz is famous as the home of Johannes Gutenberg , the inventor of the movable-type printing press , who in the early s manufactured his first books in the city, including the Gutenberg Bible. Mainz was heavily damaged in World War II ; more than 30 air raids destroyed most of the historic buildings.
Mainz is notable as a transport hub , for wine production, and for its many rebuilt historic buildings. Mainz is on the 50th latitude north, on the left bank of the Rhine. The east of the city is opposite where the Main falls into it. The population in the early was , An further 18, people live mainly elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area of 5. Mainz can easily be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway Line S8.
Mainz is a river port city as the Rhine which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar , the Main and, later, the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea. Mainz's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to the Rhine historically handling much of the region's waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is north of the town centre.
The river moderates climate. It makes waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer. After the last ice age , sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city. The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine.
As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years later the account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus , though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum.
However, it had also become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance. The Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino , for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin magnus, which was used in aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus , "Alexander the Great" and Pompeius magnus , "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth.
Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine. The town of Mogontiacum grew up between the fort and the river. Mainz was also a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica. A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in  and is open to the public. Among the famous buildings were the largest theatre north of the Alps and a bridge across the Rhine.
The city was also the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in From the last day of  or , the Siling and Asding Vandals , the Suebi , the Alans , and other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine , possibly at Mainz.
Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of Trier and the invasion of Gaul. Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement.
Different structures were built there at different times. The current citadel originated in , but it replaced previous forts. It was used in World War II. One of the sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by legionaries to commemorate their Drusus. Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the Alamanni.
The Romans repeatedly re-asserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier. By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons and the Franks.
The Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream. In the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior , which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange. He used Hunnic troops a number of times. Attila went through Alsace in , devastating the country and destroying Mainz and Trier with their Roman garrisons.
As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the Visigoths. Ricimer did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently. The capital was at Soissons. Even then its status was equivocal. Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons. He was succeeded by his son, Syagrius, who was defeated by Clovis in His son, Merovaeus , fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son, Childeric , served in the domain of Soissons.
Meanwhile, the Franks were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain from Txxandria northern Belgium which had been given to them by the Romans to protect as allies. They also moved up the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior with capital at Cologne.
They became known as the Ripuarian Franks as opposed to the Salian Franks. Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in , the Franks under the rule of Clovis I gained control over western Europe by the year Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in , ruling from Tournai.
In he defeated Syagrius , last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongeren in —, and repelled the Alamanni in Also in that year he converted to Catholicism from non- Arian Christianity. Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom. Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis.
His successor Dagobert I reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats. A solidus of Theodebert I — was minted at Mainz. Charlemagne — , through a succession of wars against other tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe. Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks.
Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made. Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine. The first archbishop in Mainz, Boniface , was killed in while trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in Fulda.
Boniface held a personal title of archbishop; Mainz became a regular archbishopric see in , when Boniface's successor Lullus was granted the pallium by Pope Adrian I.
Harald Klak , king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz in , in the abbey of St. From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor.
Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See sancta sedes. The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae , the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps.
In , Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council. The city saw a feud between two archbishops in , namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope.
In , the Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf. Those who would not promise to follow Adolf amongst them Johannes Gutenberg were driven out of the town or thrown into prison. The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule.
Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope. The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century CE. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah — taught there, among others.
He concentrated on the study of the Talmud , creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer. The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century. The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.
Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in , after which they were invited to return , and in Jews were attacked in and by mobs in Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of 11 Jews alive in