What Is an Incandescent Light Bulb?
An incandescent light bulb or light source is any device that uses electricity to heat a filament—or wire—until it is hot enough to glow white. If that were done in the open air, in the presence of oxygen, the metal filament would burn up before it got that hot. Incandescent lamp, any of various devices that produce light by heating a suitable material to a high temperature. When any solid or gas is heated, commonly by combustion or resistance to an electric current, it gives off light of a colour (spectral balance) characteristic of the material. A glowing incandescent lightbulb.
An incandescent light bulbincandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows. The filament is enclosed in a glass bulb with a vacuum or inert gas to protect the filament from oxidation. Current is supplied to the filament by terminals or wires embedded in the glass. A bulb socket provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.
They require no external regulating equipmenthave low manufacturing costsand work equally well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result, the incandescent bulb became widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlampsand flashlightsand for decorative and advertising lighting. Some applications use the heat how to pick a pair of binoculars by the filament.
Heat lamps are made for uses such as incubatorslava lampsand the Easy-Bake Oven toy. Quartz tube halogen infrared heaters are used for industrial processes such as paint curing or for space heating.
Incandescent bulbs typically have short lifetimes compared with other types of lighting; around 1, hours for home light bulbs versus typically 10, hours for compact fluorescents and 20,—30, hours for lighting LEDs. Incandescent bulbs can be replaced by fluorescent lampshigh-intensity discharge lampsand light-emitting diode lamps LED.
Some areas have implemented phasing out the use of incandescent light bulbs to reduce energy consumption. Historian Thomas Hughes has attributed Edison's success to his development of an entire, integrated system of electric lighting. The lamp was a small component in his system of electric lighting, and no more critical to its effective functioning than the Edison Jumbo generatorthe Edison main and feeder, and the parallel-distribution system. Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, and with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting.
InEbenezer Kinnersley demonstrated heating a wire to incandescence. InHumphry Davy used what he described as "a battery of immense size",  consisting of 2, cells housed in the basement of the Royal Institution of Great Britain,  to create an incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinumchosen because the metal had an extremely high melting point.
It was not bright enough nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75 years. Over the first three-quarters of the 19th century, many experimenters worked with various combinations of platinum or iridium wires, carbon rods, and evacuated or semi-evacuated enclosures. Many of these devices were demonstrated and some were patented. InJames Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland.
He stated that he could "read a book at a distance of one and a half feet". However he did not develop the electric light any further. InBelgian lithographer Marcellin Jobard invented an incandescent light bulb with a vacuum atmosphere using a carbon filament.
InBritish scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a coiled platinum filament in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it. The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity.
Although a workable design, the cost of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use. InFrederick de Moleyns of England was granted the first patent for an incandescent lamp, with a design using platinum wires contained within a vacuum bulb.
He also used carbon. InAmerican John W. Starr patented an incandescent light bulb using carbon filaments. InMoses G. Farmer built an electric incandescent light bulb using a platinum filament.
InRussian Alexander Lodygin invented an incandescent light bulb and obtained a Russian patent in He used as a burner two carbon rods of diminished section in a glass receiver, hermetically sealed, and filled with nitrogen, electrically arranged so that the current could be passed to the second carbon when the first had been consumed.
On 24 Julya Canadian patent was filed by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans for a lamp consisting of carbon rods mounted in a nitrogen-filled glass cylinder. They were unsuccessful at commercializing their lamp, and sold rights to their patent U. Patent 0, to Thomas How to play battlestar galactica in Cruto produced a filament by deposition of graphite on thin platinum filaments, by heating it with an electric current in the presence of gaseous ethyl alcohol.
Heating this platinum at high temperatures leaves behind thin filaments of platinum coated with pure graphite. By September he had achieved a successful version of this the first synthetic filament.
Joseph Swan — was a British physicist and chemist. Inhe began working with carbonized paper filaments in an evacuated glass bulb. Byhe was able to demonstrate a working device but the lack of a good vacuum and an adequate supply of electricity resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb what is a incandescent lamp an inefficient source of light.
By the mids better pumps had become available, and Swan returned to his experiments. With the help of Charles Stearnan expert on vacuum pumps, inSwan developed a method of processing that avoided the early bulb blackening. This received a British Patent in It was also shown to who attended a meeting of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne on 3 February Thus they had low resistance and required very large conductors to supply the necessary current, so they were not commercially what is a incandescent lamp, although they did furnish a demonstration of the possibilities of incandescent lighting with relatively high vacuum, a carbon conductor, and platinum lead-in wires.
This bulb lasted about 40 hours. He devised a method of treating cotton to produce 'parchmentised thread' in the early s and obtained British Patent that same year. His house, Underhill, Low Fell, Gatesheadwas the first in the world to be lit by a lightbulb and also the first house in the world to be lit by hydroelectric power.
In the home of Lord Armstrong at Cragside was also among the first houses to be lit by electricity. In the early s he had started his company. It was lit by Joseph Swan's incandescent lamp on how to make a banner on microsoft word February Thomas What does the green dot mean on plenty of fish began serious research into developing a practical incandescent lamp in Edison filed his first patent application for "Improvement in Electric Lights" on 14 October Edison continued to improve this design and by 4 Novemberfiled for a US patent for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected How to clean saucony running shoes S.
Lewis Latimeremployed at the time by Edison, developed an improved method of heat-treating carbon filaments which reduced breakage and allowed them to be molded into novel shapes, such as the characteristic "M" shape of Maxim filaments. On 17 JanuaryLatimer received a patent for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of light bulb filaments, which was purchased by the United States Electric Light Company. What is a incandescent lamp was initially against this combination, but after Swan sued him and won, Edison was eventually forced to cooperate, and the merger was made.
Eventually, Edison acquired all of Swan's interest in the company. Litigation continued for a number of years. Eventually on 6 Octobera judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. In Italian inventor Arturo Malignani — patented an evacuation method for mass production, which allowed obtaining economic bulbs lasting hours.
The patent was acquired by Edison in InGerman physicist and chemist Walther Nernst developed the Nernst lampa form of incandescent lamp that used a ceramic globar and did not require enclosure in a vacuum or inert gas.
InSiemens developed a tantalum lamp filament that was more efficient than even graphitized carbon filaments since they could operate at higher temperature. Since tantalum metal has a lower resistivity than carbon, the tantalum lamp filament was quite long and required multiple internal supports.
The metal filament gradually shortened in use; the filaments were installed with large slack loops. Lamps used for several hundred hours became quite fragile. General Electric bought the rights to use tantalum filaments and produced them in the US until From to aroundosmium was also used as a lamp filament in Europe.
The metal was so expensive that used broken lamps could be returned for partial credit. This type is often called Tungsram-bulbs in many European countries. This allows for greater temperatures and therefore greater efficacy with less reduction in filament life. InWilliam D. Coolidge developed a method of making "ductile tungsten" from sintered tungsten which could be made into filaments while working for General Electric Company. InIrving Langmuir found that filling a lamp with inert gas instead of a vacuum resulted in twice the luminous efficacy and reduced bulb blackening.
InBurnie Lee Benbow was granted a patent for the coiled coil filamentin which a coiled filament is then itself wrapped into a how to prevent gophers in your garden by use of a mandrel.
At the time, machinery to mass-produce coiled coil filaments did not exist. Hakunetsusha developed a method to mass-produce coiled coil filaments by Between and the outbreak of the Second World War, the Phoebus cartel attempted to fix prices and sales quotas for bulb manufacturers outside of North America.
InMarvin Pipkinan American chemist, patented a process for frosting the inside of lamp bulbs without weakening them. Byimprovements in efficiency and production of incandescent lamps had reduced the cost of providing a given quantity of light by a factor of thirty, compared with the cost at introduction of Edison's lighting system. Consumption of incandescent light bulbs grew rapidly in the US. Inan estimatedgeneral lighting service lamps were sold, all with carbon filaments.
When tungsten filaments were introduced, about 50 million lamp sockets existed in the US. In For a given quantity of light, an incandescent light bulb consumes more power and emits more heat than a fluorescent lamp. In buildings where air conditioning is used, incandescent lamps' heat output increases load on the air conditioning system.
Compared to other incandescent non-halogen light types, incandescent halogen lamps will emit the same amount of light using less power, and a more constant output over time, with little dimming.
Luminous efficacy of a light source is the ratio of the visible light to the total power input to the source, such as a lamp. Not all wavelengths are equally effective at stimulating the human eye. The what is a incandescent lamp of luminous efficacy are lumens per watt lpw.
A white light source with all visible wavelengths present has a lower efficacy, around lumens per watt. The luminous efficiency is defined as the ratio of the luminous efficacy to the theoretical maximum luminous efficacy of lpw for green light.
What is an incandescent light bulb?
Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings. Although inefficient, incandescent lamps possess a number of key advantages--they are inexpensive to buy, turn on instantly, are available in a huge array of sizes and shapes and provide a pleasant, warm light with excellent color rendition. Jun 02, · Basically, an incandescent light bulb is a controlled fire on display. When electrical current makes contact with the base of the bulb, electricity enters and heats the tungsten filament housed inside. And when the filament heats up, “incandescence” is created, which is light produced by heat.
An incandescent light bulb or light source is any device that uses electricity to heat a filament—or wire—until it is hot enough to glow white. If that were done in the open air, in the presence of oxygen, the metal filament would burn up before it got that hot. Incandescent bulbs work because the heated filament is inside a glass shell or globe that is evacuated and either left as a vacuum or filled with an inert gas. It was two earlier inventors, Henry Woodward, and Matthew Evans, who invented the incandescent light bulb, whose patent was purchased by Thomas Edison.
By , Edison had switched to a carbon filament and the oxygenless enclosure, and had produced a bulb that would last for forty hours. The incandescent bulb has come a long way since then. What happens is that the wire filament slowly evaporates. In an ordinary incandescent bulb , those molecules are simply lost. They wind up deposited on the inside of the glass shell, which is why an older incandescent bulb will look yellower and dimmer than an otherwise identical new one. This also means that the filament wire is shrinking as it loses molecules.
To extend the life of standard incandescent bulbs, manufacturers build them to become less hot than the optimum temperature for emitting clear, white light. As a result, incandescent bulbs emit a lot of the energy they use in the infrared portion of the spectrum. That does us no good for seeing, of course, and is pretty much a waste of energy—unless we want the heat they are throwing off.
In a word, no. What has happened is that all light bulbs are now required to meet a minimum efficiency standard, which was adopted in the Energy Independence and Security Act of Still, many incandescent light bulbs were exempted from the standards. Three-way bulbs, rough service bulbs, and appliance bulbs are examples. The replacements for a standard 60W bulb, which was one of the earliest types of bulb affected, have come a long way toward meeting those standards.
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