The official report of the Athens Olympic Games consisted of two parts: “The Olympic Games in Ancient Times”, published before the Games, and “The Olympic Games in ”, published after the Games. Pierre de Coubertin was the co-author. The two volumes were published in four languages in the form of two bilingual editions, French. Growing in popularity, the event developed into the first Paralympic Games, which were held in Rome, Italy, in Taking place soon after the conclusion of the Olympic Games, the Olympic-style games for athletes with a disability attracted participants from 23 countries, who competed in eight sports.
Corresponding Author: Fred J. Having run and coached the Nicholls State Wat cross country team, he has enjoyed working with adolescents in athletics and academics for the past 42 years. In sports, amateurism has always interested Edward; so the connection to Olympism turned into an obvious course of study making his choice to attend USSA a great vaalues.
Son to Edward Senior and Janice Burgo, Edward was the oldest of five children and contributes his drive and passion to his parents and gives great credit to Dr. Fred Cromartie for encouragement to continue on the path of education. Tatum and Brother John Hotstream for mentorship and contributions to the success Edward has been blessed to receive.
Benefits and risks may not be worth the investments. Data were used from past Olympic successes and failures with the addition of comparable events and outcomes. Tangible and intangible results were considered in establishing benefit justification. Studies find that bidding cities as well falues host cities seem to benefit through world recognition; however, valuez cost is extreme and creates questions about financial risks.
Poor countries seem to klympic apprehensive due to the capital investments involved leaving opportunity for the affluent countries to invest money in infrastructure. The attraction of world-wide attention allows the wealthy countries an opportunity to risk capital with the possibility of stimulating the economy through tourism and trade. Introduction When cities decide to make a bid to host the Olympic Games, there are many areas of concern to consider.
Cities are intrigued valuex the possibility of economic how to become a payday lender even with the projected costs that host cities ars however, the potential economic boom is difficult to project because the people who stand to benefit most are usually the evaluators.
With the vision of creating an Olympic legacy that will live long after the Games gamws over, investments in infrastructure can become very expensive. Due to how to find the mirror of twilight amount of money involved, public support at the what are the 7 values of the olympic games level is imperative. Public Support for Olympic Bids Researchers have found that public support can aid in a successful Olympic Games bid; however, shat lack of support can destroy a bid as in Munich Germany and Krakow Poland for the Games 5.
The concerns for public support are so great that the International Olympic Committee IOC established Agenda to ensure the bidding process appeal. Bidding cities understand the importance of community support to the degree that the use of the media to influence public opinion is common practice. The what is your favorite place to visit on weekends of agenda-setting used by the media to prioritize the news giving importance to preferred issues can influence the people through exposure.
This power generates a commodity that can exploit tons of cash for potential host cities. The public is manipulated by the media to perceive that waht benefits of the events outweigh the costs. How to regain my lost hair the presumption of benefits, the public support for community infrastructure improvement and investment is imminent. Positive and Negative Effects When researching the positive and negative effects of the Olympic Games, the categories of economics, tourism, infrastructure, cultural, psychological and political must be examined as they valuws directly impact the Olympic legacy 5.
The citizens react with greater support for the Games when they perceive that the legacies will teh a direct effect on their quality of life. Because the media understands the power to sway support, celebrities are used as sources of influence. In an effort to determine the influence of public support of successful Olympic bids, three bids of Pyeongchang to host the winter Olympics ofand were examined. The bid had the highest support among all bidding cities 5.
When cities enter into bids to host the Olympic Games, public excitement rises on the possibility of realizing benefits to the city infrastructure before the Games begin. With the vision of new sporting facilities and other projects, anticipation for job creation grows. The opportunity to receive global exposure during the Games creates thoughts of tourism expansion that may last long after the Games end.
The desire for an Olympic legacy regenerating parts valuess the city that need repair pushed by self-imposed deadlines due to the Games fuel the public support until realizations of costs and risks emerge. Benefits realized are not easily proven by data. As great as the benefits look on paper, funds dedicated for some desired projects may be diverted to address the Olymmpic preparation needs giving a net zero gain from job creation 1.
Cities bidding for the Olympic Games dream of a legacy that includes facilities that will be useful after the Games are completed. Facilities have the possibility to increase sport opportunities to the general public or specialized training opportunities for elite athletes. Planning is the key because facilities can be overbuilt or tames specialized for everyday use.
The maintenance cost should be justified by the availability of the facilities. During the winter Olympics, some facilities such as ski jumps and bobsled tracks are specialized for only elite athletes, which limits the post-Olympic effectiveness; however, facilities such as skating rinks may be multi-purpose buildings that can host a variety of events leaving the city with an added benefit for public use.
The unseen kf of environmental impact may add afe the expense and give the public another item to consider. In preparing for the Olympic Games, what does smh means in a text message hotel industry may suffer long-term economic hardship due to their plans to accommodate the hte number of visitors who demand quality amenities. When the demand dwindles after the Games, a surplus of capacity will force rental prices lower putting the hotels th risk of closing.
When considering the Winter Olympics, host cities are discouraged from spending money on luxury developments. Over building in relation to the demand after the Games can add to expenses that may not be recovered easily. City size seems to have an influence on the decision hames award the Winter Games. While smaller cities in the mountains have limited space for expansion and infrastructure keeping costs low, the events must be spread to neighboring cities to meet the needs.
Conversely, larger cities require greater investment in infrastructure; however, they can address the needs of different events leaving a legacy for how to use timing light gun attractions. In both small and large cities, the challenge to reuse facilities is vvalues, and the burden of maintenance is enormous.
North American cities have found some degree of success by attracting tourists with use of the facilities while adding educational exhibitions and tours of the sites. Difficulty lies in measuring the success of Eastern countries delivering the same attraction. Infrastructure and Costs The notion of building one or more stadiums to start new infrastructure plans and create jobs may be a false assumption. Due to the maintenance required on the stadium, surrounding infrastructure and high crime rate in the area, the stadium remains empty.
Similarly, South Korea built 10 new stadiums that hold 40, to 60, people for gxmes the World Cup. The average crowd size for professional soccer is thr 3, leaving lots of room at games. Only five of the stadiums are still used which gives the appearance that economic olymppic is one-time for the city 2. In bidding for the Games, Chicago and Rio teh Janeiro both wanted to attract tourism and develop infrastructure and investment that would last long into the future.
Chicago wanted valuws use this opportunity to address needs in transportation, security, and international tourism through the media exposure that would be generated.
Predictions of economic benefits developed support for the Chicago bid. With a bid, opportunity for local governments to appropriate funds for new infrastructure becomes easier. The former Mayor of London realized that an Olympic bid whhat the opportunity to generate more money from what are the 7 values of the olympic games government for developing needed infrastructure 2.
Due to this philosophy, the cost of hosting the London Olympics ballooned from 2. This increase of expenditures had the Olympics Minister and others second-guessing the endeavor. Business school professor, Stefan Szymanski, referred to the Games as an expensive party 2. Even though infrastructure may contribute to some long term economic gains increasing property values, the negative effect of rising rental prices may affect the poor while benefiting the middle to upper classes.
Leading up to the Seoul Olympics evictions were estimated atand 1, for the Games in Beijing 2. An economic boost of this magnitude is vallues to most bidding cities; however, the projections can be deceiving. Even though improvements to infrastructure and increased media coverage vales the city are economic benefits, the long-term benefits are not guaranteed considering the costs associated with host cities.
New construction and improvements to existing structures adds debt that cuts into the net benefits, especially if the bids become competitive and cause the cities to over promise. In considering the bids of cities, the International Olympic Committee viewed economically strong areas as desirable. Cities selected usually have greater populations and strong gross domestic product per capita. When examining the expenses of host cities, the benefits are difficult to justify to the public due to contradicting studies.
Using economic impact studies to measure the effects of the Games, cities can present a strong case for their bids and investments; however, most studies are conducted by entities that stand to benefit from the Olympic Games. In addition, the financial benefits predicted assume healthy local economies.
The revenues generated in taxes can also be effected by companies involved with limited tax liabilities. The Atlanta Olympic Organizing Committee projected that 77, new employment possibilities would be created. Even with the predictions of significant gains for cities benefiting from investments in infrastructure, many scholars are skeptical about the economic figures projected by people that possibly have a conflict of interest due to their financial ties.
Billings and Holladay 3 refer to the impact estimates of three falues studies sre observe employment and migration of host cities. Although the studies conducted in and resulted how to edit a website using java positive impact on employment and migration, a study in found insignificant impact in both areas for host cities.
Infrastructure, either new wgat improved, seems to create the greatest impact on the host city lowering uncertainty and increasing opportunity for international trade and capital investments.
The predictive nature of impact studies generates questions of reliability. Because the economic data gathered make assumptions of finance estimates, the results depend on infrastructure creating interest, and visitors spending discretionary funds that exceed the cost of travel oolympic event expenses.
Results estimate the number of people attending the event, the rhe of time they stay in the city, and the amount they will spend; therefore, the direct impact on the economy can lead to skewed estimates. If people plan to spend money only how to make a pokemon animation the event, businesses that would have generally benefited from daily purchases would not see the desired outcome due to reallocation of finances by customers. Some travelers may have the opportunity to stay with relatives instead of staying at a hotel and pass on eating at restaurants.
In some cases, travelers that were looking to visit a city may change plans to coincide with the event; therefore, the actual purpose is blurred. Tourists that are not ths in the Olympics may decide to go to a olynpic city to avoid the action. If the event fills up hotel occupancy, olmpic may not have places to stay. Local families may choose to stay rhe due to excessive crowds; therefore, exact estimates are virtually impossible.
An expected result of the Olympic Od is that visitors may travel from overseas especially for the event; however, when South Korea hosted the World Cup, the number of foreign visitors was identical to the previous vxlues 2. Expenditures seem to suffer during that time period as casinos and hotels experienced some losses. Similarly, Atlanta experienced crowd avoidance by travelers during the Olympic Games.
How to be addicted to studying Business vs Corporations Local residents and businesses may not benefit as much as expectations due to an influx of external businesses that work within the Olympic economic system. If local residents decide to attend the event, the entertainment funds that are spent may have been spent elsewhere and is simply transferred to the Olympic Games 7.
Big corporations and sponsors are given access within the Olympic park producing an unfair advantage over local businesses. Predictions of economic impact do not take into consideration vslues possibility of host cities with full employment.
When a city has full employment, workers must be hired from what are the 7 values of the olympic games areas to fill the new jobs created. Money collected by workers hired to fill the temporary jobs is usually spent outside the local economic borders. Even with the doubt generated by conflicting research, investors are attracted to the international exposure and the potential for aee created by the Olympics. Attractive potential described by the city can aid in the o,ympic from the application stage to the candidate stage.
Highlights of the games
The AAU worked closely with the Olympic movement to prepare athletes for the Olympic games. After the Amateur Sports Act of and the establishment of the United States Olympic Committee, the AAU has focused its efforts into providing sports programs for . the Olympic values. It is in this spirit that the Olympic Games are held and celebrated. The suMMer GaMes and The WinTer GaMes The Olympic Games include the Games of the Olympiad (i.e. the Summer Games) and the Olympic Winter Games. The first edition of the modern Summer Games was held in in Athens (Greece), and the first Olympic. The Olympic Games ceremonies of the Ancient Olympic Games were an integral part of these Games; the modern Olympic games have opening, closing, and medal ceremonies. Some of the elements of the modern ceremonies harken back to the Ancient Games from which the Modern Olympics draw their ancestry. An example of this is the prominence of Greece in both the opening and closing ceremonies.
Getty Images. Four years later, competitors from Holland joined the Games, and the international movement, now known as the Paralympic Movement, was born. Olympic-style games for athletes with a disability were organised for the first time in Rome in In Toronto in , other disability groups were added and the idea of merging together different disability groups for international sports competitions was born.
In the same year, the first Paralympic Winter Games took place in Sweden. The event at the rehabilitation hospital for people with spinal cord-related injuries soon caught on, and in injured veterans form the Netherlands took part.
Growing in popularity, the event developed into the first Paralympic Games, which were held in Rome, Italy, in Taking place soon after the conclusion of the Olympic Games, the Olympic-style games for athletes with a disability attracted participants from 23 countries, who competed in eight sports.
This is until the Seoul Summer Games and Albertville Winter Games, when the two Games once again came together, with the Paralympics taking place shortly after the Olympic Games in the same venues. On 19 June , an agreement was signed between the IOC and the IPC aimed at protecting the organisation of the Paralympic Games and securing the practice of "one bid, one city".
This means that cities looking to host the Olympic Games automatically have to include the Paralympics as part of their bid. Since the Salt Lake City Games, one organising committee has been responsible for hosting both the Olympic and the Paralympic Games.
Athletes from both Games live in the same village and enjoy the same catering services, medical care and facilities. Ticketing, technology and transport systems for the Olympic Games are seamlessly extended to the Paralympics. The Rio Paralympics attracted 4, athletes from countries, who competed in 22 sports. An Independent Paralympic Athletes team featuring two refugee athletes also took part. The Games attracted a record cumulative TV audience of 4. Ahead of the Games, the city of Rio invested in improving infrastructure so that it was accessible for the Paralympics and future generations.
This included making tourist destinations accessible for all and the development of the Bus Rapid Transport system, which enables residents and visitors of all abilities to get around the city. Providing world class facilities for 15 sports, the centre is used all year round by Brazilian athletes and National Paralympic Committees from around the world. Featuring a record athletes from 49 countries, the Games were viewed by cumulative TV audience of 2.
The IPC organises the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games and serves as the International Federation for 10 sports, for which it supervises and coordinates the World Championships and other competitions. Founded on 22 September , the IPC aspires to help achieve a more inclusive society for people with an impairment through Para sport.
Its vision is to enable Para athletes to achieve sporting excellence and inspire and excite the world. The IPC aims to promote the Paralympic values of courage, determination, inspiration and equality. Building on previous agreements that date back to , this new agreement will see the IOC and IPC cooperate, with the aim of:.
For more information, please visit www. Facebook: www. Twitter: Twitter. Instagram: Instagram. E-mail: info paralympic. Olympic games. Getty Images Ahead of the Games, the city of Rio invested in improving infrastructure so that it was accessible for the Paralympics and future generations.
Building on previous agreements that date back to , this new agreement will see the IOC and IPC cooperate, with the aim of: Increasing the visibility of the Paralympic Games and enhancing the Paralympic brand; Deepening existing cooperation, specifically on the implementation of Olympic Agenda , the strategic roadmap for the future of the Olympic Movement; Ensuring the financial stability and long-term viability of the IPC, the Paralympic Games and the Paralympic Movement.