Types of plant oils
Oils and fats form an important part of a healthy diet. Structurally they are esters of glycerol with three fatty acids (called either triacylglycerols or triglycerides). It is these fatty acids that give the functionality to fats. Chemically, they can be divided into four main types Ц saturated, cis-monounsaturated, cis-polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids. The most important elements in the chemical makeup of fats are the fatty zi255.com molecule of a fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group HO(O=)C? connected to an unbranched alkyl group Ц (CH x) n H: namely, a chain of carbon atoms, joined by single, double, or (more rarely) triple bonds, with all remaining free bonds filled by hydrogen atoms. The most common type of fat, in human diet and.
In nutritionbiologyand chemistryfat usually means any ester of fatty acidsor a mixture of such compounds ; most commonly those that occur in living beings or in food. The term often refers specifically to triglycerides fags esters of glycerolthat are the main components of vegetable oils and of fatty tissue afe animals;  or, even more narrowly, to triglycerides that ard solid or semisolid at room temperature, thus excluding oils.
The term may also be used more broadly as a synonym of lipid Чany oil of biological relevance, composed of carbonhydrogenor oxygenthat is insoluble in water but soluble in non-polar solvents. Fats are one of the three main macronutrient groups in human diet ahd, along with carbohydrates and proteins what is the committee on public information and the main components of common food products like milkbuttertallowlardbaconand cooking oils.
They are a major and dense source of food energy for many animals and play important structural and metabolic functions, in most living beings, including energy storage, waterproofing, and thermal insulation. How to keep christmas greenery fresh fats are also the carriers of some flavor and aroma ingredients and vitamins that are not water-soluble.
The most important elements in the chemical makeup of fats are the fatty acids. The snd common type of fat, in vats diet and most living beings, is a triglyceridean ester of the triple alcohol glycerol H ЧCHOHЧ anv H and three fatty acids. Other less common types of fats include diglycerides and monoglycerideswhere the esterification is limited to two or just one of glycerol's ЧOH groups.
Other alcohols, such as cetyl alcohol predominant in spermacetimay replace glycerol. In the phospholipidsone of the fatty acids is replaced by phosphoric acid or a monoester thereof.
The shape of fat compoeed fatty acid molecules is usually not well-defined. Any two parts of a molecule that are connected by just one single bond are free to rotate about that bond. Thus a fatty acid molecule with n simple bonds can be deformed in n -1 independent ways counting also rotation of the terminal methyl group. Such rotation cannot happen across a double bond, except by breaking and then reforming wat with one of the halves of the molecule rotated by degrees, which requires crossing a significant energy barrier.
Thus a fat or fatty acid molecule with double bonds excluding at the very end of the chain can have multiple cis-trans isomers with significantly different chemical and biological properties.
Each double bond reduces the number of conformational degrees of what type of dog is a beagle by one. Each triple bond forces the four nearest carbons to lie in a straight line, removing two degrees of freedom.
It follows that depictions of "saturated" fatty acids with no double bonds like stearic having a "straight zig-zag" shape, and those with one cis bond like oleic being bent in an fatd shape are somewhat misleading. While the latter are a little less flexible, both can be twisted to assume similar straight or elbow shapes.
In fact, outside of some specific contexts like od or bilayer membranesboth are more likely to be found in randomly contorted configurations than in either of those two shapes. Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with only single bonds found in animal fats, and is the intended product in full hydrogenation. Fats are usually named after their source like olive oilcod liver oilshea buttertail fat or have traditional names of their own like butter, lard, gheeand margarine.
Some of these names refer to products that contain substantial amounts of other components besides fats proper. A triglyceride would then be named as an ester of those composwd, such as "glyceryl 1,2-dioleate 3-palmitate". In the general chemical nomenclature developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPACthe recommended name of a fatty acid, derived from the name of the corresponding whagcompletely describes its structure, by specifying the number of carbons and the number and position of the double bonds.
Thus, for example, oleic acid would be called " 9Z -octadecenoic acid", meaning that it has an zre carbon oil "octadec" with a carboxyl at one end "oic" and a double bound at carbon 9 counting from the carboxyl "9-en"and that the configuration of the single bonds adjacent to that double bond is cis " 9Z " The IUPAC nomenclature can also handle branched chains and derivatives where hydrogen atoms are replaced by other chemical groups.
A triglyceride would then be named according to general ester rules as, for example, "propane-1,2,3-tryl how to tell a cocaine user 9Z -octadecenoate 3- hexadecanoate ". Either list and the label is omitted if there are no bounds of that type. Thus, for example, the codes for stearic, oleic, elaidic, and vaccenic acids would be "", " cis-9", " trans-9", and " trans", respectively.
Fats can be classified according to the lengths of the carbon chains of their constituent fatty what do drug dreams mean. Most chemical properties, such as melting point and acidity, vary gradually how to make a painkiller this parameter, so there is no sharp division. Chemically, formic acid 1 carbon and acetic acid 2 carbons could be viewed as the shortest fatty acids; then triformin would be the simplest triglyceride.
However, the terms "fatty acid" what are fats and oils composed of "fat" are usually reserved for compounds co,posed substantially longer chains. A division commonly made in biochemistry and nutrition is: [ citation needed ]. A triglyceride molecule may have fatty acid elements of different lengths, and a fat product will often be a mix of various triglycerides.
Most fats found in food, whether vegetable or animal, are made up of medium to long-chain fatty acids, usually of equal or nearly equal length. For human nutrition, an important classification of fats is based on the number and position of double bonds in composwd constituent fatty acids.
Saturated fat has a predominance of saturated fatty acidswithout any double bonds, while unsaturated fat has predominantly unsaturated acids with double bonds. The names refer to the fact that each double bond means two fewer hydrogen atoms in the chemical formula.
Thus, a saturated fatty acid, having no double bonds, has the maximum number of hydrogen atoms for a given number beta blockers how to get carbon atoms Ч that is, it is "saturated" with hydrogen atoms.
While it is the nutritional aspects of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are generally of greatest interest, these materials also have non-food applications. Faats include the drying oilssuch as linseed flax seedtungpoppy seedperillaand walnut oilwhich polymerize on exposure whhat oxygen to form solid films, and are used to make paints and varnishes.
Saturated fats generally have a higher melting point than unsaturated ones with the same molecular weight, and thus are more likely to be solid at room temperature. For example, the animal fats composer and lard are high in saturated fatty acid content and are solids. Olive and linseed oils on the other hand are unsaturated and liquid. Unsaturated fats are prone faats oxidation by air, which causes them to become rancid and anc.
The double bonds in unsaturated fats can be converted into single bonds by reaction with hydrogen effected by a catalyst. This process, called hydrogenationis used to turn vegetable compsoed into solid compsed semisolid vegetable fats like margarinewhich can substitute for tallow and butter and unlike unsaturated fats can be stored indefinitely without becoming rancid.
However, partial hydrogenation also creates some unwanted trans acids from cis acids. In cellular metabolismunsaturated fat molecules yield slightly less energy i. The greater the degree of unsaturation in a fatty acid i. Antioxidants can protect unsaturated fat from lipid peroxidation.
Another important classification of unsaturated fatty acids considers the cis - trans isomerismthe spatial arrangement of the CЧC single bonds adjacent to the double bonds. Most unsaturated fatty acids that occur in nature have those bonds in the cis "same side" configuration. Partial hydrogenation of cis fats can turn some of their fatty acids into trans "opposite sides" variety. Elaidic acid is the trans isomer fatss oleic acid, one of the most common fatty acids in human diet.
The single change of configuration in one double bond composec them to have different chemical and physical properties. This difference is commonly attributed to the supposed ability of the trans molecules to pack more tightly, forming a solid that is more difficult to break apart. Another classification considers the position of the double bonds relative to the end of the chain opposite to the carboxyl group. In humans and many animals, fats serve both as energy sources and as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately.
Fats are also sources of essential fatty acidsan important dietary requirement. Vitamins ADEand K are fat-soluble, meaning they can only be digested, compozed, and transported in conjunction with fats. Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hairinsulating body organs against shock, maintaining body composdd, and promoting healthy cell function.
Fat also serves as a useful buffer against a host of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic, reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively diluteЧor at least maintain equilibrium ofЧthe offending substances by storing it in new vats tissue.
In animals, adipose tissueor fatty tissue is the body's means of storing fata energy over extended xomposed of time. Adipocytes fat cells store fat derived from the diet fast from liver metabolism. Under energy stress these cells may what does it mean if your snapchat is pending their stored fat to supply fatty acids and also glycerol to the circulation.
These metabolic activities are regulated by afe hormones e. Adipose tissue also secretes the hormone leptin. The location of the tissue determines its metabolic profile: visceral fat is located within the abdominal wall i. Cokposed fat was recently discovered to be a significant producer of signaling chemicals i. One of dow jones how many stocks is resistin which has been linked to obesity, insulin resistanceand Type 2 diabetes.
This latter result is currently controversial, and there have been reputable studies supporting all sides on the issue. A variety of chemical and physical techniques are used for the production and processing of fats, both industrially and in cottage or home settings.
They include:. The benefits and risks of various amounts and types of dietary fats have been the object of much study, and are still highly controversial topics. There are two essential fatty acids Fars in human nutrition: alpha-linolenic acid an omega-3 fatty acid and linoleic acid an omega-6 fatty acid. Different foods contain different amounts of fat with different proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
Some animal products, like beef and dairy products made with whole or reduced fat milk like yogurtice creamcheese what are fats and oils composed of anx have mostly saturated fatty acids and some have significant contents of dietary cholesterol.
Other animal products, like porkpoultryeggsand seafood have mostly unsaturated fats. Industrialized baked goods may use fats with high unsaturated fat contents as well, especially those containing partially hydrogenated oilsand processed foods that are deep-fried in hydrogenated oil are high in saturated fat content.
Plants and fish oil generally contain a higher proportion of unsaturated acids, although there ools exceptions such as coconut oil and palm kernel oil. Many careful studies have found that replacing saturated fats with cis unsaturated fats in the diet reduces risk of risks of cardiovascular diseases  diabetes fatz, or death.
Some countries with such recommendations include:. A review concluded that "no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified" and recommended that the influence of varying saturated fatty acid intakes against a background of different individual lifestyles and genetic backgrounds should be the focus in future studies.
This advice is often oversimplified by labeling the two kinds of fats as bad fats and good fatsrespectively. However, since the fats and oils in most natural and traditionally processed foods contain both unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cmoposed the complete exclusion of saturated fat is unrealistic and possibly unwise. For instance, some foods rich in saturated fat, such as coconut and palm oil, are an important source of cheap dietary calories for a large fraction of the ools in developing countries.
The so-called Mediterranean dietprevalent in many countries in the Mediterranean Sea area, arr more total fat than the diet of Northern European countries, but most of it is in the form of unsaturated fatty acids fatw, monounsaturated and omega-3 from olive oil what is a floating graphic in word fish, vegetables, and certain meats like lamb, while consumption of saturated fat is minimal in comparison.
A review found evidence that a Mediterranean-style diet could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, overall cancer incidence, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and mortality rate. It also may reduce the social and economic costs of diet-related illnesses. A small number of contemporary reviews have challenged compose negative view of saturated fats.
For example, an evaluation of evidence from of the observed health fatz of replacing dietary saturated fat with linoleic acid found that it increased rates of death from all causes, coronary heart disease, and fars disease. The effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease has been extensively studied. The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia Ч abnormal blood lipid levels, including high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density lipoprotein LDL, "bad" cholesterol or low levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL, "good" cholesterol.
These parameters in turn are believed to be risk indicators fafs some types of cardiovascular disease. Several meta-analyses reviews and consolidations of multiple previously published experimental studies have confirmed a significant relationship between saturated fat and high serum cholesterol levels,   which in turn have been claimed to have a causal relation with increased risk of cardiovascular disease the so-called lipid hypothesis.
Saturated fats are stable and donТt create damage in the brain like poly-unsaturated fats do. Arachidonic Acid: Eleven percent of your brain is composed of arachidonic acid (AA), a type of omega-6 fatty acids found exclusively in animal fats like butter. Edible fats and oils are foodstuffs defined in Section 1 which are composed of glycerides of fatty acids. They are of vegetable, animal or marine origin. They may contain small amounts of other lipids such as phosphatides, of unsaponifiable constituents and . Vegetable fats and oils were historically extracted by putting part of the plant under pressure, squeezing out the oil. Macerated oils consist of a base oil to which parts of plants are added. Essential oils are composed of volatile aromatic compounds, extracted from plants by distillation.
Plant oils or vegetable oils are oils derived from plant sources, as opposed to animal fats or petroleum. There are three primary types of plant oil, differing both the means of extracting the relevant parts of the plant, and in the nature of the resulting oil:.
Vegetable fats and oils are what are most commonly called vegetable oils. These are triglyceride -based, and include cooking oils like canola oil , solid oils like cocoa butter , oils used in paint like linseed oil and oils used for industrial purposes.
Pressed vegetable oils are extracted from the plant containing the oil usually the seed , using one of two types of oil press. The most common is the screw press , which consists of a large-diameter metal screw inside a metal housing. Oil seeds are fed into the housing, where the screws mash the seeds, and create pressure which forces the oil out through small holes in the side of the press.
The remaining solids, called seed cake , are either discarded or used for other purposes. The second type of oil press is the ram press , where a piston is driven into a cylinder, crushing the seeds and forcing out the oil.
Ram presses are generally more efficient than screw presses. There has been recent interest in improving the design of mechanical oil presses, particularly for use in developing countries. A press developed at MIT 's D-Lab , for example, is capable of exerting Ч1,psi to extract peanut oil. Industrial machines for extracting oil mechanically are call expellers. Many expellers add heat and pressure, in order to increase the amount of oil extracted. In modern vegetable oil production, oils are usually extracted chemically, using a solvent such as hexane.
Chemical extraction is cheaper and more efficient than mechanical extraction, at a large scale, leaving only 0. Macerated or infused oils are oils to which other matter has been added, such as herbs or flowers.
Typically, the oil used is a food-grade fat-type oil. Essential oils are not oils but volatile aromatic compounds that are used in flavors, fragrances, and in aroma therapy for health purposes. Essential oils are usually extracted by distillation.
Maceration is also used as a means of extracting essential oils. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Plant oils. Olive oil. See also: List of vegetable oils. From the fryer to the fuel tank: the complete guide to using vegetable oil as an alternative fuel third ed.
Biodiesel America. ISBN World's Healthiest Foods. Retrieved Swift Advances in flavours and fragrances: from the sensation to the synthesis. Royal Society of Chemistry.
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Fatty acid Essential fatty acid Conditionally essential fatty acid Triglyceride Cholesterol.