What Is the Difference between Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine?
Pseudoephedrine is commonly known as Sudafed.. is made synthetically, now; extracting the ephedrine. make it from off-the-shelf chemicals than to extract. What do you need to extract the ephedrine out of the sudafed cold pills? commercially available ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as the origin of the casually procured material used in this study. The synthetic procedure is shown in scheme 1. The. chromium tricarbonyl coordination compound. 2. was formed in 96% yield by heating the purified starting material andFile Size: KB.
Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are phenethylamine derivatives identical in their molecular formula but slightly different in their arrangement of molecules. Both are considered sympathomimetic drugs, which means that they affect the sympathetic nervous system. While these drugs are very similar, even belonging to the same amphetamine chemical classes, there are distinct differences between them. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine differ in their appearance, their uses, and the way they affect the body.
While both of these substances are derived from the Ephedra sinica plant, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are not identical in appearance. Once extracted from the Ephedra plant, ephedrine looks like a wax or grainy powder that is white or clear in color. Pseudoephedrine is a fine, white powder that turns yellow when exposed to the how to cite wikipedia in an essay for long periods of time.
The uses of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine also differ. In medicine, ephedrine is most commonly used as a nasal decongestant and a bronchodilator. Less commonly, ephedrine is used to dilate the pupils, control urinary incontinenceand treat anesthesia -related hypotension. Ephedrine has also been used for its what is bluetooth pan network adapter to stimulate the nervous system and cause weight loss.
While the use of ephedrine as a weight loss supplement has been banned in many different countries, it was commonly used for that purpose in previous years. Pseudoephedrine is primarily used as a nasal and sinus decongestant. This drug is commonly included in medications for allergies, hay fever and common colds. It can also be combined with other medications to treat sinusitiscroup and more conditions. In addition to their primary uses, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine also differ in the way they affect the body.
Ephedrine is a more effective stimulant than pseudoephedrine. When consumed, this drug will increase energy, suppress appetite, and increase heart rate. In some individuals, these effects can be dangerous. Misuse can result in hypertension, vertigonausea, headache, rapid heart rate and other health problems. Though ephedrine might be more stimulating, pseudoephedrine is commonly regarded as a more effective decongestant.
For this reason, pseudoephedrine is more frequently included in cold, sinus and allergy medications. Unlike ephedrine, pseudoephedrine is also less likely to cause serious changes in heart rate, euphoria and other negative side effects. While pseudoephedrine can cause negative effects, these side effects are typically less severe than those caused by ephedrine. It is, however, still important to exercise caution and use both of these drugs only as directed. Please enter the following code:.
Login: Forgot password?
Abstract: It is shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that the labelled C2 fragment of pyruvic acid is transferred intact into the C-methyl group and the adjacent carbon atom of the Ephedra alkaloids, norephedrine, ephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, and pseudoephedrine, in growing plants of Ephedra zi255.com finding. Feb 27, · Pseudoephedrine, active ingredient of Sudafed®, has long been the most popular nasal decongestant in the United States due to its effectiveness and relatively mild side effects . The terms Sudafed - Pseudoephedrine - Ephedrine - E - sudo. Will be considered as similar when dreaming this document, although there is a difference in the physical properties of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine, Pills are usually 30mg or 60mg, the time release are mg to mg of ephedrine / tablet. n many ways this is what it is all about.
This is the completely factual way that my associates used to reduce the OTC psudafed tablets into Methamphetamine in this country. It is rumoured that I was one of the first to commercialize this method into Australia, where the text from Fester was reviewed and backreferenced by me in order to authenticate its scientific validity and apply the most economical means that avoided attention. My aim was to avoid all the big crews in reliance on purchasing precursors, like pseudo and red phosphorus in order to avoid the risk of getting busted for affiliation.
I found Melbourne crews especially careless with their talk, egos etc whenthey were under surveillance. The amphetamine market looks as though it is quite a lucrative one as long as you dont get wasted or associate with too many vain crims when you become known.
When you have a quantity of high quality substance and reputable dealers find out about you, the "sucking" starts and so do the games. I used to be a young crim and have observed the pitfalls of myself and other young associates and had to do time as a result.
Popularity turns to temporary fame and your confidence gets played out, mainly if you confuse friendship with business, and surveillance can start on you if you mix with the so called "big" names I see amphetamine markets as a good spinner for some since the structures of the heroin and cocaine industries are tightly controlled by the upper echolon who preserve their positions by police interaction and trade offs of their competition and "young" up and comers, when things are getting squeezed.
It's good, it's all good - but only for a while Anyway, back to the drawing board. The "birch" reaction is attractive because of the high yields, it produces compared to the other mass production methods. The real proportions for the red method for any scale is:. Reflux for 48 hrs for larger reactions and 30 hrs when the result will be less than a kilo.
Filter wash collected phosphorus with distilled water and reuse! I'm sure you can work the details out if you have access to the precursors! Back to the point, I will give you practical everyday talk because the mathematical equations and organic chemistry jargon has already been worked out I don't need to prove my scholarly prowess or to confuse you either. Fester isn't a bad entertainment reference to get ideas from and to get used to instruction with handling bits and pieces if you're new.
But like most references, there are assumptions and spelling mistakes that really can procrastinate a successful result indefinitely If you have interests and have read up on him, avoid all Mehtylene dioxy reactions like you would the plague. You can be round about with speed and still get some sort of result Reading the bromosafrole reactions made me think that he's never made Ecstacy in his life I'd be inclined to side with Eleusis on aforementioned issues but if you have half a brain, you back reference Fester's material in which he gives references honestly and freely.
To make things doesn't take a chemical genius, except to newly work out the most accessible reactions with the most economical and lowkey equipment. It takes more hands on experience and familiarity, which breeds contempt as it did with me which is why I changed careers and stay out of trouble, I can afford to.
Anyway there has been an extension to the old grammer so it can be stepped up to grams without a hassle, and too much costly reagents. Repeat process can yield a kilo in about hours. The longest time is to collect the packets of psudafed brands and other brands amcal that contain purely pseudoephedrine HCL. In victorian chemists, it is safe to get 2 packets of 30's per person so a couple of people shopping around for a couple of weeks can slowly get a suitable amount of ephedrine.
The chemists in were legislated to call the drug squad directly if a person bought 3 packets of 90's Simple brief instructions. Freebase l or d -ephedrine is an oil in freebase form, similar to meth, but d-pseudoephedrine is a solid, flake freebase which is only slightly soluble in water.
The modern glues make the popular water extraction methods impossible to filter the methyl cellulose. So hence:. Purchase Lithium metal in paraffin oil of course or Sodium metal also in P. Sodium is less expensive but is somewhat more dangerous and you need more for the reactions. For a gram suzy reaction, measure out; 38 - 46 grams of lithium or grams of sodium work, use abit more if the metal appears crumbly and old and varying this catalyst can vary the quality slightly.
Use gloves when measuring and use a small bowl of et2o or tol to rinse paraffin off metal, dry in paper towel thoroughly and accumlate measured metal in a freezer bag. If you are being precise, cut and measure soft metals with a butterknife whilst oil is on it and use oil to cover cuts when applying pressure. As long as you don't sneeze or get water on metal, this is relatively safe procedure. Care, dexterity and thoughtfulness are necessities whenever cooking.
Rushing or taking drugs leads to disaster, explosions, fire, spillages and sometimes arrest. Always keep a cool clear head. Seal bag of metal when finished and stick in a cool dark place until needed. Use in same day. Proportions for smaller reactions, just scale it to g Li for g suzy additions or 33 - 38g Na. You can use either toluene, which is cheaper in 20L tins compared to diethyl ether.
They both dissolve about the same amount of freebase suzy, yet ether takes less time to dry and some people believe ether gives a slightly better product. This is purely speculative. Freebase suzy has a low dissolution rate in solvents compared to freebase oil meth. That's 40 mls per gram, this wastes alot of solvent, especially when it turns to meth oil that dissolves in mls per solvent per gram after its converted, depending on isomer percentages that we believe alter a little.
So prepare the mls of pre-addition solvent it's not entirely necessary and dissolve 60 - 65 grams in 2. Mix well and let settle. Undissolved purities wil settle to the bottom and you can filter this through a funnel and sheet of paper towel non bleached.
Cover and save this, keep the remainder of the freebase g for this single reaction ,ground up fine in a plastic bag. When you get your gas bottle of ammonia from BOC or other acetylene suppliers, get the associated mask and cartridges for NH3 and if a full face mask is too costly, use swimming goggles for the eyes.
Use a bathroom with a fan, open window for the main addition reaction. When getting liquid NH3 into erlenmeyer, tip tube upside down, stick a fitted pvc hose and empty 2. This way, you can measure abit more accurately, then tip NH3 into dry 4L erlenmeyer which is snug in a bucket of dry ice and tol or acetone half covering the ice, etc etc.
Keep a plastic bag over the top of th 4L erlenmeyer to prevent dry ice, ice solvent supercooling whilst fitting it into the bucket system. Make sure stirrer is absolutely dry before dropping it into the flask. Add NH3 as described, activate stirrer, Add metal in and wait 20 minutes for it to dissolve, check, with a torch make sure it continues to stir and it all dissolves.
Solution should turn dark blue to black and be really murky, if it stays clear add pre addition ml solvent gently and this should help things along. Wait longer if you have to, success depends on all the metal dissolving. Just add more ice around the flask and keep it level near the top of the flask, push down occasionally on the dry ice because it forms gaps as it melts.
When confident of dissolution of all the metal, add pre addition solvent ml gently. Then slowly drip pour the solvent with the freebase in it into the supercooled solution. Take regular pauses when the mist of ammonia rise out of the top of the erlenmeyer. On addition turn the stirrer up to a fast stirring pace. When pausing, cover top of flask covered with gloved hand or plastic bag and wait until mist goes and you can see solution again. Take your time at first, then make it quicker near the end - 20 minutes.
Now total liquids in the flask are more than 4 L volume in a 4 L erl flask, why does it fit? Why is it so? Now that all the liquid additions are made, it's time to sprinkle the majority of the remaining freebase gently into the dark solution and turn up the stirrer to the safest fastest pace. The majority of the freebase in the solvent has already been converted to meth so there is lots of space for more to go in. After another minutes the rest of the powdered freebase should be in the solution.
Cover top and leave for minutes. There should be g of fb suzy in there to be converted. Pull flask from ice with gloved hands and teatowells, this is cold Do this with mask in a well ventilated room.
Tie up an flush down a friends toilet for a joke Water additions create Naoh or LiOH but these whitish precipitates dissolve in water whilst your product stays in the upper solvent layer, so need not worry. Having no shiny bits that blow up floating on your dark mix makes slow water addition quite safe. I know from experience. Rinse erlenmeyer with ml solvent, swirl and pour through strainer into main mix. Pour water in main mix and stir until solution turns clear and all whitish precipitates have dissolved.
There is alot of ammonia smell steam from this. Leave covered for half to 1 hr then separate top solvent layer,dry by pouring in some oven dryed epsom saltsand stiring to pickup any residual water and pour through paper towel into a container to be crystallised. Flush NH3 water down toilet and most of your smell problem will be gone Festers Hcl gas generator is ok, but we down under prefer to simplify it a bit.
Pour g non-iodised salt into a 2 L filtration flask, this flask has 2 ft length of clear ptfe hose on vac. HCL gas immediately bubbles through solvent and creates NH3CL smoke which is harmless to breathe but gets quite thick. Watch bubbling froth in gas flask, tilt and swirl to reduce froth. Just unstopper, pour 50 ml acid and restopper quickly to keep it going.
About 10 minutes roughly goes by and the only thing you generate is thick smoke from the surface of solvent. Keep going and after smoke generation dies down, crystals begin to form. Keep gassing until , white crystal layer begins to settle and alot of HCL gas rises from surface you'll begin to smell it, do this with a fan and open window going Take vaccuum flask when finished and carefully pour water in to acid mix to neutralise it.