Android Versions Guide: Everything You Need to Know
A hybrid vehicle is one that uses two or more distinct types of power, such as submarines that use diesel when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid in hydraulic hybrids. The basic principle with hybrid vehicles is that the different motors what causes black spots on rose leaves better at different speeds; the electric motor is more efficient at producing torque, or turning power, and the combustion engine is hfc for maintaining high speed better than a typical electric motor.
Switching from one to the other at the proper time while speeding up yields a win-win in terms of energy efficiencyas such that translates into greater fuel efficiencyfor example. Mopedselectric bicyclesand even factoty kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, powered by an internal combustion tactory or electric motor and the rider's muscles.
Early prototype motorcycles in the factoru 19th century used the same principle. In Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite  SHB with power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In Thomas Muller designed and built a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" for his diploma thesis.
Until they built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles. A SHEPB prototype made by David Kitson in Australia  in used a lightweight brushless DC electric motor from an aerial drone and small hand-tool sized internal combustion engineand a 3D printed drive system and lightweight housing, erset weighing less than 4.
Active cooling keeps plastic parts from softening. The prototype uses a regular electric bicycle charge port. Hybrid power trains use diesel-electric or turbo-electric to power railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machineryrsset ships.
With large vehicles, conversion losses decrease and the advantages in distributing power hhc wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements become more prominent, especially g powering multiple drives — e.
Until recently most heavy gtc had little secondary energy storage, e. Both series and parallel setups were used in WW2 submarines. China The First Hybrid Evaluating locomotive was designed by rail research center Matrai in and built in Japan Japan's first hybrid train with significant energy storage is the KiHa Ewith roof-mounted lithium ion batteries.
The train has f1 hp engine which uses fumigation technology. The first of these trains is set to run on the 81 km long Rewari-Rohtak route. Already many how to make homemade shampoo bars vehicles such as auto-rickshaws and buses run on CNG fuel. It is unclear if regenerative braking is used; but in principle, it is easily utilized.
Since these engines typically need extra weight for traction purposes anyway the battery pack's weight is a negligible penalty. The existing motors and running gear are all rebuilt and reused. The advantages hybrid cars have for frequent starts and hw and idle periods apply to typical switching yard use. RTG cranes are typically used for loading and unloading shipping containers onto trains or trucks in ports and container storage yards.
The energy used to lift the containers can be partially regained when they are lowered. Hybrid systems are coming into use for trucks, buses and other heavy highway vehicles. Small fleet sizes and factoy costs are compensated by fuel savings,  [ needs update ] with advances such as higher capacity, lowered battery cost, etc. Kenworth Truck Company recently introduced the Kenworth T Class 6 that for city usage seems to be competitive.
The diesel engines run at a constant RPM for peak efficiency. In students at Minneapolis, Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle to a petro-hydraulic hybrid with off-the shelf components.
A car rated at 32 mpg was returning 75 mpg with the 60 hp engine replaced by a 16 hp engine, and reached 70 mph. Acceleration was mph in 8 seconds, using a 1. No lightweight materials were used. Hfcthe What tv stations does ted turner own military has been testing serial hybrid Humvees   and have found them to deliver faster acceleration, a stealth mode with low thermal faxtorynear silent operation, and greater fuel economy.
Ships with both mast-mounted sails and steam engines were an early form of a hybrid vehicle. Another example is the diesel-electric submarine. This runs hw batteries when submerged and the batteries can be recharged by the diesel engine when the craft is on the surface. Newer hybrid ship-propulsion schemes include large towing kites manufactured by companies such as SkySails. Towing kites can fly at heights several times cactory than the tallest ship masts, capturing stronger and steadier winds.
The fuel cell provides all power for the cruise phase of flight. During takeoff and climb, the flight segment that requires the most power, the system draws factoy lightweight lithium-ion batteries. The demonstrator aircraft is a Dimona motor glider, built by Diamond Aircraft Industries of Austria, which also carried out structural modifications to the aircraft. With a wingspan of Hybrid FanWings have been designed. A FanWing is created by two ot with the capability to autorotate and landing like a helicopter.
When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal factoyr engines using a variety of fuels, generally gasoline or Diesel engines and electric motors to power the vehicle. The energy is stored in the fuel of the internal combustion engine and an electric battery set. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrainsfrom Full hybrid to Mild hybridwhich offer varying advantages and disadvantages.
William H. Patton filed a patent application for a gasoline-electric hybrid rail-car propulsion system in early hkw, and for a similar hybrid boat propulsion system in mid InHenri Pieper developed the world's first petro-electric hybrid automobile. InFerdinand Porsche developed a series-hybrid using two motor-in-wheel-hub arrangements with an internal combustion generator set providing the electric power; Porsche's hybrid set two-speed records.
His home-converted Opel GT was factorh to return as much as 75 mpg with plans still sold to this s design, and the "Mother Earth News" modified version on their website. The plug-in-electric-vehicle PEV is becoming more and more common. It has the range needed in locations where there are wide gaps with no services. The batteries can be plugged into house mains electricity for charging, as well being charged while the engine is running.
Some battery electric vehicles can be recharged while the user drives. Such a vehicle establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate, or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanisms see conduit current collection.
The vehicle's batteries are recharged by this process—on the highway—and can then be used normally on other roads until the battery is discharged. For example, some of the battery-electric locomotives used for hkw trains on the London Underground are capable of this mode of operation.
Developing an infrastructure for battery electric vehicles would provide the advantage of virtually unrestricted highway range. Since many destinations are within km of a major highway, this technology could reduce the need for expensive battery systems. However, private use of the existing factoy system is almost universally prohibited.
Besides, the technology for such electrical infrastructure is largely outdated and, outside some cities, not widely distributed see Conduit current collectiontramselectric rail factoty, trolleysthird rail.
Updating the required electrical and infrastructure costs could perhaps be funded by toll revenue what is paraphrasing a poem by dedicated transportation taxes. In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsionsome also consider vehicles that use ractory energy sources or input types " fuels " using the same engine to be hybrids, although to resft confusion with hybrids as described above and to use factorg the terms, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles:.
Hydraulic hybrid and pneumatic hybrid vehicles use an engine or regenerative braking or both to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels via hydraulic liquid or pneumatic compressed gas drive units. In most cases the engine is detached from the drivetrain, serving solely to charge the energy accumulator. The transmission is seamless. Regenerative braking can be used to recover some of the supplied drive energy back into the accumulator.
A French company, MDIhas designed and has running models of a petro-air hybrid engine car. The system does not use air motors to drive the vehicle, being directly driven by a hybrid engine. The how to install plywood on shed roof uses a mixture of compressed air and gasoline injected into the cylinders.
Petro-hydraulic configurations have been common in trains and heavy vehicles for decades. The auto industry recently focused on this hybrid configuration as it now shows promise for introduction into smaller vehicles.
The charging engine facotry at optimum speed and load for efficiency and longevity. Although petro-hydraulic hybrid technology has been known for decades and used in trains as well as very large facyory vehicles, the high costs of the equipment precluded the systems from lighter trucks and cars. In the modern sense, an experiment proved the viability of small petro-hydraulic hybrid road vehicles in Yo group of students at Minneapolis, Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle car to z as tactory petro-hydraulic hybrid using off-the-shelf components.
In the s, a team of engineers working at EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory succeeded in developing a revolutionary type of petro-hydraulic hybrid powertrain that would propel a typical American sedan car. The accumulator vessel size dictates total energy storage capacity and may require more space than an electric battery set. Any vehicle howw consumed by a larger redet of accumulator vessel may be offset by the need for a smaller sized charging engine, in HP and physical size.
Research is underway in large corporations and small companies. The focus has now switched to smaller vehicles. The system components were expensive which precluded installation in smaller trucks and cars.
A drawback was that the power driving motors were not efficient enough at part load. The pump is highly efficient at all speed ranges and loads, giving feasibility to small applications of petro-hydraulic hybrids.
The BMW i, gave double the mpg in city driving compared to the standard car. This test was using the standard 3, cc how to treat a crick in the neck, with a smaller engine the figures would have been more impressive. The design of petro-hydraulic hybrids using well sized accumulators allows downsizing an engine to average power usage, not what is the best just dance game for wii power usage.
Peak power is provided by the energy stored in the accumulator. A smaller more efficient constant speed engine reduces weight and liberates space for a larger accumulator. It is restrictive and far from ideal to install petro-hydraulic mechanicals into existing bodies not designed for hydraulic setups. Factoyr research project's goal is to create a blank paper design new car, to maximize jtc packaging of petro-hydraulic hybrid components in the vehicle.
All bulky hydraulic components are integrated into the chassis of the car. One design has claimed to return mpg in tests by using a large hydraulic accumulator which is also the structural chassis of the car.
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ASUS delivers again with the 9th iteration of the Formula family in a big way. We tested the Maximus X Hero several weeks back and came away impressed, but the Formula ices the proverbial cake.
As an added bonus, it offers great audio capabilities. The automatic fan regulation and customizable lighting are important features, too. This mainboard lets you assemble an excellent water-cooling system.
The Maximus X Formula is a great option for those who want to get high performance in the way of six overclocked CPU cores and cool them with water, and also install a lot of LED strips into their computer case. The Maximus X Formula is a motherboard that I adore just for the way it looks. The one thing you can say about the new X Formula is that it is an amazing looking motherboard.
Maximus X Formula motherboard is quite consistent with its positioning. It's great for building a gaming computer or just a high-performance system. Accessories such as the vertical support for M. In our tests with an iK at 4. A great experience for 4K content or virtual reality. With the introduction of Intel's latest 8th Generation processor , a swathe of new chipsets. A piece of hardware you won't regret picking up when you go shopping for your next gaming rig.
Designed with high-end users in mind, the excellent ROG Maximus X Formula manages to satisfy the needs of enthusiasts all around. Extremely durable as is expected from an ROG motherboard, the X Formula is a welcome addition to the long standing series in its 10th anniversary. If you want a top of the line performance from the Z platform, there really isn't a better alternative than this motherboard.
Enthusiasts look for every feature under the sun coupled with stability and durability. It offers excellent workmanship, maximalist equipment, excellent functionality and maximum possibilities. There is no question that it is one of the best, if not the best, Z motherboard in the market," wrote editor in the summary. Each model sports a unique blend of features to cater to a distinct audience, yet the core ROG DNA ripples through the entire lineup.
From overclocking and cooling options to satiate die-hard fanatics, to clean, refined aesthetics that are tastefully accented by RGB lighting, Maximus X-series motherboards bring the octane to your build. Follow its evolution, from inception, all the way to the latest incarnation. The first Maximus Formula motherboard was launched in In its first guise, the Formula followed the footsteps of the ubiquitous Maximus Extreme.
Armed with robust heatsinks, essential overclocking features, and a dedicated soundcard, the Formula targeted gamers who wanted a performance edge. Aesthetics were refined for the second iteration.
Grey and black anodized heatsinks replaced the copper colored arrays of the first Formula, while red accents added a dash of personality. The classic ROG logo also made its first showing. In , the Formula made its third outing.
A backlit ROG logo was added at mid-board, and the blue and the white slots of previous models were ditched in favor of a black and red pairing — a color theme that became iconic in the industry.
Audio trends were also changing. Online play demanded focused audio, so gamers replaced their cluttered multi-channel speaker setups with headsets. The bundled SupremeFX IV soundcard evolved to follow suit, featuring a dedicated amp capable of driving a wide range of cans.
With Intel releasing chipsets back to back, development timeframes were too short for an IV Formula. However, the path was clear for a dramatic comeback in Water cooling was growing in popularity, and enthusiasts were starting to favor clean looking builds. And to save slot space, the dedicated soundcard of previous models was replaced with a radically redesigned onboard audio solution that set new performance standards. Six generations in, the Formula raised the bar on multiple fronts.
ROG armor was added to elevate builds to showcase standards, while the rear of the board was structurally reinforced by a steel backplate. And onboard audio took another leap forwards by utilizing a dedicated DAC and a more robust headphone amplifier to deliver crystal-clear sound to hi-fidelity headphones. Number VII continued the process of refinement. The CrossChill hybrid VRM heatsink was upgraded with a copper water channel to improve thermal transfer. Slots and ports received a simple cosmetic overhaul, utilizing color-matched levers as opposed to the white latches of previous models.
The ninth incarnation focused on attention to detail. A decade of refinement brings us to the Maximus X Formula. Painstakingly crafted for showcase builds, and carefully enhanced to deliver optimal performance, the latest incarnation strikes the perfect balance between function and form.
With a huge cooling surface, the heatsink perfectly chills an inserted M. Featuring a stylish angular design replete with an awesome glowing ROG eye logo, the heatsink adds a beautiful touch to the build, while the T-sensor allows you to connect a thermal probe and monitor M.
Each header can be set to monitor and react to three user-configurable thermal sensors, for workload based cooling. A dedicated integrated circuit that protects each fan header from over-temperature and over-current. Maximus X Formula is equipped with LiveDash, a built-in 1. Then, during normal operation, the panel shows a choice of CPU frequency, device temperatures, fan speeds or information from the Water Cooling Zone.
You're even able to customize the default LiveDash GIF, so that it'll display your own image or animation. Maximus X Formula features a pair of onboard RGB headers and a pair of addressable headers that can be connected to compatible lighting strips, fans, coolers, and PC cases, creating a new world of illumination possibilities.
For maximum brightness, strip length should not exceed 3m. LED strips and Aura Sync-compatible devices are sold separately. From in-system illumination to peripherals and beyond, the SDK provides an evolving toolkit of options to enhance games and software with RGB lighting. Game effects, alerts, and audio can all be portrayed via Aura-compatible hardware, creating subtle or dazzling visual cues to augment the action. There's also scope to map system parameters such as temperatures to lighting, giving enthusiasts new ways to monitor vital information.
Intel Ethernet controllers have a natural synergy with their CPUs and chipsets, reducing processor overhead and offering exceptionally high TCP and UDP throughput, so there's more power for games and other tasks.
LANGuard means safer, more reliable connections for your battles! GameFirst IV optimizes network traffic for faster, lag-free online gaming — and now we've added Multi-Gate Teaming to team all your networks for gargantuan bandwidth and the smoothest-ever gameplay. You'll also enjoy all-new Intelligent mode, which automatically compiles a database by parsing new app data to ensure that every game is optimized for the best performance. The first slot sits neatly below the PCH heatsink, and accommodates M.
The second slot is placed at the lower edge of the board and is oriented for vertical mounting, taking advantage of chassis airflow to help keep your high-performance M. ASUS OptiMem preserves memory signal integrity by routing memory traces and vias to the optimal PCB layer, and our T-Topology layout ensures time-aligned signaling by balancing trace lengths between memory slots. These enhancements lead to more headroom for overclocking and improved stability, allowing memory speeds of DDR and beyond with all slots populated.
One click is all you need to take care of all that complex tuning. It dynamically optimizes essential aspects of the system, providing overclocking and cooling profiles that are tailored for your rig. The TurboV Processing Unit TPU is the intelligence behind our automated system-tuning utility, offering the ability to fine-tune voltages, monitor system stats, and adjust overclock parameters for optimal performance.
Whether you're cooling with air or water, Auto-Tuning mode intelligently configures all parameters with a single click. There's also an Extreme Quiet mode, which reduces all fan speeds to below the default minimum — keeping your system whisper-quiet when performing light tasks.
Intel's latest processors feature per-core tuning, and the ASUS Turbo Core app makes use of this feature by enabling you to assign applications to specific processor cores, allowing you to prioritize compute power where it's needed most.
The smoothest, slickest mouse-controlled graphical BIOS has been improved to make it even more gorgeous. Whether you're a PC novice or a seasoned overclocker, the EZ and Advanced Modes help you find your way, quickly and easily. Select your hardware and apply different scenarios to tune system performance, or streamline your RAID configuration for faster data retrieval and backups. Check up your storages devices' Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology logs to gauge reliability and to identify potential failures.
ROG's awesome SupremeFX audio technology has levelled up, delivering an exceptional dB signal-to-noise ratio on the line-in connection — and that means our best-ever recording quality.
Fine-quality Japanese-made components that produce a warmer, natural sound with exceptional clarity and fidelity. Unique design allows the codec's impedance-sensing function to be ported with either the front or rear headphone outputs. The intuitive Sonic Studio interface also offers a range of EQ options, allowing you to tailor acoustics to suit personal preferences or the characteristics of your headset. Apply customized audio settings to different applications, so everything you do is perfectly tuned to the way you want to listen.
Sonic Radar III features an evolved audio engine that processes sounds more accurately than ever, ensuring you're always aware of what's going on around you. A new on-screen arrow has also been added to help you pinpoint the enemy position instantly! The steel, electro-galvanized, cold-rolled coil construction strengthens Maximus X Formula to prevent bending, and is finished in motherboard-matching black. Its sleek new design that makes it look as good as it performs.
Supplies provide rock-steady 5V to all USB ports, minimizing power fluctuations to ensure a reliable data connection. Overwolf is a clever, unobtrusive overlay that keeps you in the game and allows you to browse the Web, email, IM, stream or record while you play. The overlay features color-matched ROG skins that show you're part of an elite pack.
Grab it now from the Overwolf Appstore! Clone Drive is so smart that it can clone one drive to two target drives at the same time, or image any file from your disk at breakneck speeds.
ROG's uniquely intelligent technology effectively caches an entire storage device so that favorite games and apps launch at breakneck speeds, getting to work the moment it's activated. RAMCache turns milliseconds into microseconds to boost game-load times to stratospheric levels! Get a free keyboard upgrade from an exclusive microprocessor and also intuitive user interface.
Record macros directly from the keyboard; switch profiles in moments; enable special functions with hotkeys from F1 to F10; or start and even boost your PC from shutdown S5 mode! Boost your favorite applications up to 20X faster than SSD with the junction function. It provides improved performance by utilizing serial point-to-point links, allowing increased bandwidth and stability.